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19th Century
Antonio Campa Soza

Antonio Campa Soza [AHS 28K]

Antonio Campa Soza

Southern Arizona, is that vast area embraced by the Colorado River, the Gila River, State of New Mexico and the Republic of Mexico on the west, north, east and south respectively. This ancient and historical land,34 was further impacted by several major 19th century events and occurrences.

Prior to the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846, all of Arizona was the sovereign territory of the Republic of Mexico. This included the Soza ancestral domiciles at Tubac and Tucson. As a consequence of the War's end, and the signing of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, vast changes took place in southern Arizona.

Coincident with the 19th century, the doctrine of "Manifest Destiny" gained currency in the United States. The "Doctrine" fostered and promoted the notion that by "divine right, the United States should and ought to extend its natural borders from sea to shining sea."35

The United States-Mexican War of 1846-1848 helped fulfill that "divine right." Mexico relinquished and the United States acquired the huge territorial area embraced by the present States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, and Utah. All of Arizona was ceded except for that area embraced by southern Arizona, which included Tucson and Tubac.

The Gadsden Purchase, ratified June 29, 185436 was designed and promoted for the purpose of acquiring that northern Sonoran territory not previously included in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The intent and purpose of the Purchase was to secure a more level terrain for a railroad route from the east to west.

With the Purchase, and armed with "divine right," southern Arizona became part and parcel of the United States. The Purchase was ratified in 1854 but it would be 1856 before the last Mexican troops would depart Tucson, and the United States would establish administrative control of Tucson and Tubac.

The Civil War, 1861-1864, brought Confederate troops into southern Arizona, and confronted a smaller force of Union troops. The Union troops were driven out of southern Arizona. Fort Breckenridge, at the juncture of the San Pedro River and Arivaipa Creek, was razed. Its destruction denied the Confederates the Union facility and stores. With the arrival of the California Volunteers, the Confederate troops retreated, and were expelled from the Arizona Territory.

Coincident with the Civil War, the United States Congress passed the Homestead Act of May 20, 1862, and was signed into law by President Lincoln. The creation of the Territory of followed on February 24, 1863.

Territorial status, coupled with the Homestead Act brought forth unprecedented activity in population, farming, and mining. Population in the Territory grew to nearly 59,000 in 1890 from only 2,421 in 1860.37

Image [28K] Map of Arizona Territory 1864 38

These historic events: The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the Gadsden Purchase; the Civil War 1861-1865; and the Homestead Act of 1862, profoundly shaped and influenced the life and times of Antonio Campa Soza.

At Antonio's birth, Southern Arizona was still the sovereign territory of Mexico and would remain such until the Gadsden Purchase was implemented. Antonio could claim, "born here from parents the same, and their parents the same."39 After the last Mexican troops removed themselves from Tucson in 1856, the Sosa family elected to remain on their ancestral and historical lands. In the process, they relinquished Mexican citizenship and became American citizens.

The earliest official public notice of Antonio occurs in Tucson, when he testified before the Legislature of Arizona about an Apache attack upon himself and party in November 1869. His testimony and affidavits were incorporated into a Memorial sent to the United States Senate and House of Representatives titled: "Showing Outrages Perpetuated By The Apache Indians, Territory of Arizona 1869 AND 1870."40

He testified as follows:

"Antonio Soso (sic) sworn: Is a farmer and native of this Territory, testifies to the murder of Juan Saize (sic) and an attack upon himself and party on November 1869, in which two horses were killed and men wounded, by Apache Indians. On same day the Apache stole from him and others 100 head of cattle - witness losing all he had. That the Apache Indian are more bold than at any time heretofore, that there is no safety to travelers or those outside of town."

Another event, related by his wife Maria Jesus Moreno de Soza is in her Reminiscences, dated January 6, 1939.41 In this instance, Antonio was twelve, tending a herd of cows, when the Apaches raided Tubac. Antonio was rescued by a relative, Bernardino Campa,42 and taken to the San Xavier Mission. Tubac was subsequently abandoned and the Sosa family moved to Tucson.

Antonio's parents were Manuel Sosa and Luisa Campa, and his younger brother was Placido. After Manuel's demise in the early 1850, his widow married her husband's brother Calistro. From this union, Luisa bore two more sons, but only one survived.

Luisa was widowed again, about 1860-1861, after which she married Jesus Maria Mungia. Two more children were born, namely Tomas and Ramona Mungia. By this time Luisa had given birth to six children, losing one at infancy. From her second marriage, she gained Juan Soza, her second husband's son from a previous union.

This circumscribes the family Antonio knew as a child and a young adult. Using the census of 1860 as a benchmark, it appears to corroborate that Antonio's father Manuel had died prior to the Census. Afterwards, his mother married Calistro Sosa who then became Antonio's step-father and uncle.

Using the Special Territorial Census of 1864 as a guide, son Tomas (Mungia) has joined the family, suggesting that the demise of Calistro Sosa occurred sometime before 1862 and that his widow Luisa Campa Sosa had remarried.

This notion is reinforced by "Map #1 of the Cultivated Fields of Tucson in and about Tucson, A.T. 1862."43 The map, shows Louisa Campo (sic) as the owner of a large tract in the cultivated fields. The name Sosa does not appear on this map.

The 1876 Map of Lands Donated By An Act Of Congress Approved February 1875 Entitled "An Act To Grant Title To Certain Lands In The Territory of Arizona...." is more helpful. On this map Calistro Soso (sic) appears as the original owner of Lot 11, 12 and 13 Section 11, Township 14 South, Range 13 East. Lot 13 would later be claimed by his nephew/stepson Antonio.44

The demise of Calistro Sosa, Luisa's second husband, can be fixed as occurring before the 1862 Map was drawn. Otherwise Calistro's name instead of his spouse Luisa Campo (sic) would have appeared as the owner of the property. Further, the Special Census of 1864 shows brother Tomas age 1, from Luisa's third marriage, in Antonio's household.

Continue with: Patents

A Walk Through The Past Affidavits of Contest New World Odyssey, A Search For Roots Hispanic Homesteaders in Arizona Mexican Homesteaders in the San Pedro River Arizona Pictorial Biography