Antonio Campa Soza
is that vast area embraced by the Colorado River, the Gila River,
State of New Mexico and the Republic of Mexico on the west, north,
east and south respectively. This ancient and historical land,34 was further impacted by several major 19th
century events and occurrences.
Prior to the
U.S.-Mexican War of 1846, all of Arizona was the sovereign territory
of the Republic of Mexico. This included the Soza ancestral domiciles
at Tubac and Tucson. As a consequence of the War's end, and the
signing of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, vast changes took
place in southern Arizona.
the 19th century, the doctrine of "Manifest Destiny" gained currency
in the United States. The "Doctrine" fostered and promoted the notion
that by "divine right, the United States should and ought to extend
its natural borders from sea to shining sea."35
The United States-Mexican
War of 1846-1848 helped fulfill that "divine right." Mexico relinquished
and the United States acquired the huge territorial area embraced
by the present States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico,
Nevada and Texas, and Utah. All of Arizona was ceded except for
that area embraced by southern Arizona, which included Tucson and
Purchase, ratified June 29, 185436 was designed and promoted for the purpose
of acquiring that northern Sonoran territory not previously included
in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The intent and purpose
of the Purchase was to secure a more level terrain for a railroad
route from the east to west.
With the Purchase,
and armed with "divine right," southern Arizona became part and
parcel of the United States. The Purchase was ratified in 1854 but
it would be 1856 before the last Mexican troops would depart Tucson,
and the United States would establish administrative control of
Tucson and Tubac.
The Civil War,
1861-1864, brought Confederate troops into southern Arizona, and
confronted a smaller force of Union troops. The Union troops were
driven out of southern Arizona. Fort Breckenridge, at the juncture
of the San Pedro River and Arivaipa Creek, was razed. Its destruction
denied the Confederates the Union facility and stores. With the
arrival of the California Volunteers, the Confederate troops retreated,
and were expelled from the Arizona Territory.
the Civil War, the United States Congress passed the Homestead Act
of May 20, 1862, and was signed into law by President Lincoln. The
creation of the Territory of followed on February 24, 1863.
status, coupled with the Homestead Act brought forth unprecedented
activity in population, farming, and mining. Population in the Territory
grew to nearly 59,000 in 1890 from only 2,421 in 1860.37
[28K] Map of Arizona Territory 1864 38
events: The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the Gadsden Purchase;
the Civil War 1861-1865; and the Homestead Act of 1862, profoundly
shaped and influenced the life and times of Antonio Campa Soza.
birth, Southern Arizona was still the sovereign territory of Mexico
and would remain such until the Gadsden Purchase was implemented.
Antonio could claim, "born here from parents the same, and their
parents the same."39 After
the last Mexican troops removed themselves from Tucson in 1856,
the Sosa family elected to remain on their ancestral and historical
lands. In the process, they relinquished Mexican citizenship and
became American citizens.
official public notice of Antonio occurs in Tucson, when he testified
before the Legislature of Arizona about an Apache attack upon himself
and party in November 1869. His testimony and affidavits were incorporated
into a Memorial sent to the United States Senate and House of Representatives
titled: "Showing Outrages Perpetuated By The Apache Indians, Territory
of Arizona 1869 AND 1870."40
Soso (sic) sworn: Is a farmer and native of this Territory, testifies
to the murder of Juan Saize (sic) and an attack upon himself and
party on November 1869, in which two horses were killed and men
wounded, by Apache Indians. On same day the Apache stole from him
and others 100 head of cattle - witness losing all he had. That
the Apache Indian are more bold than at any time heretofore, that
there is no safety to travelers or those outside of town."
related by his wife Maria Jesus Moreno de Soza is in her Reminiscences,
dated January 6, 1939.41 In this instance, Antonio was twelve, tending
a herd of cows, when the Apaches raided Tubac. Antonio was rescued
by a relative, Bernardino Campa,42 and taken to the San Xavier Mission. Tubac
was subsequently abandoned and the Sosa family moved to Tucson.
were Manuel Sosa and Luisa Campa, and his younger brother was Placido.
After Manuel's demise in the early 1850, his widow married her husband's
brother Calistro. From this union, Luisa bore two more sons, but
only one survived.
Luisa was widowed
again, about 1860-1861, after which she married Jesus Maria Mungia.
Two more children were born, namely Tomas and Ramona Mungia. By
this time Luisa had given birth to six children, losing one at infancy.
From her second marriage, she gained Juan Soza, her second husband's
son from a previous union.
the family Antonio knew as a child and a young adult. Using the
census of 1860 as a benchmark, it appears to corroborate that Antonio's
father Manuel had died prior to the Census. Afterwards, his mother
married Calistro Sosa who then became Antonio's step-father and
Using the Special
Territorial Census of 1864 as a guide, son Tomas (Mungia) has joined
the family, suggesting that the demise of Calistro Sosa occurred
sometime before 1862 and that his widow Luisa Campa Sosa had remarried.
is reinforced by "Map #1 of the Cultivated Fields of Tucson in and
about Tucson, A.T. 1862."43
The map, shows Louisa Campo (sic) as the owner of a large tract
in the cultivated fields. The name Sosa does not appear on this
The 1876 Map
of Lands Donated By An Act Of Congress Approved February 1875 Entitled
"An Act To Grant Title To Certain Lands In The Territory of Arizona...."
is more helpful. On this map Calistro Soso (sic) appears as the
original owner of Lot 11, 12 and 13 Section 11, Township 14 South,
Range 13 East. Lot 13 would later be claimed by his nephew/stepson
The demise of
Calistro Sosa, Luisa's second husband, can be fixed as occurring
before the 1862 Map was drawn. Otherwise Calistro's name instead
of his spouse Luisa Campo (sic) would have appeared as the owner
of the property. Further, the Special Census of 1864 shows brother
Tomas age 1, from Luisa's third marriage, in Antonio's household.