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Endnotes

1.
Hallenbeck, Cleve
The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza P/46
Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas 1987

2.
Carl Ortwin Sauer
Sixteen Century North America P/131

3. Ibid P/134

4.
Herbert Eugene Bolton
Rim of Christendom
A Biography of Eusebio Francisco Kino
University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona 1984 P/497

Officer, James E.
Hispanic Arizona 1536-1856
University of Arizona Press / Tucson 1987 P/32

5.
Hodge, Hiram C.
Arizona As It Is
Hurd & Houghton, Boston, H.D. Houghton & Co., Cambridge
The Riverside Press 1877
Rare Book # 152653, Huntington Library San Marino, California

6.
Hinton, Richard J.
The Handbook of Arizona 1877 811 H 57 1954
P/237, P/285


7.
Officer, James E.
Hispanic Arizona 1536-1856
P/33 Author quotes anthropologist Edward Spicer

"that by 1710 the Apache had cleared an area 250 miles wide for their exclusive occupation".

8.
Kessell, John L.
Missions of Sorrow P/161

Officer, James E.
Hispanic Arizona 1536-185 P/39-40

9.
Arizona, Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern
Volumes 1 & 2, James H. McClintock

Volume 2, P/539
"Monument on a hill at the juncture of the Gila and Salado Salt River), established by A.B. Gray in 1851, in the course of the International Boundary Line. The monument was selected as the initial point from which surveys of the new territory would be made."

10.
Emory, Major William
Report on the U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey 1857
U.S. Department of the Interior
Submitted to Congress July 29, 1856 P/94

11.
Wallace, Andrew
The Images of Arizona
University of New Mexico Press/Albuquerque, 1971 P/117

12.
Murbarger, Neil
Ghost of Adobe Walls, Westernlore Press 1964 P/349

"The name of Fort Arivaipa was changed to Fort Breckenridge in honor of Vice President J. C. Breckenridge. The Fort was razed in July 10, 1861 to prevent its capture by the Confederate forces."

P/355
Fort Arivaipa May 1860
Fort Breckenridge August 1860
Camp of Fort Stanford 1862
Fort Breckenridge 1863-1865
Camp Grant 1865
Destroyed by flood 1866
Camp Grant Massacre 1871

13.
DeLong, Sidney R., The History Of Arizona
The Whitaker & Ray Co. 1905
P/24 "Leech (sic) wagon road. James H. Leech (sic) superintendent, and Lt. Hutton, assistant

P/91
Williams, J.W. edited by
Journey of the Leach Wagon Train Across Texas 1853
West 29, October 1853

Also see:
Report Upon The Pacific Wagon Roads
Campbell, Albert H. General Supervisor, Pacific Wagon Roads
Printed initially in 1859 - Contains reports by James B. Leach Superintendent, and N.H. Hutton, Engineer of E1 Paso and Fort Yuma Wagon Road, Y Galleon Press, 1969

14.
Delong, Sidney R.
The History of Arizona, The Whitaker & Ray Co. 1905 P/24

15.
Circular from the General Land Office
S Proceeding to Obtain Title to Public Lands under
Preemption, Homestead and other Laws.

P/4 Minimum and Double Minimum Land
No land shall be sold either at public or private sale for less than $1.25 per acre, which ...called "minimum price" and land held for sale are called "minimum lands"

The double minimum price established by law is $2.50 per acre and lands held for sale at that price at called "double minimum lands"

16 .
General Land Office (GLO) letter dated January 18, 1890 to the Register and Receiver (hereafter R & R) William A. Cunningham Cash Entry 513 paid $2.50 per acre for land embraced within the grant limits of the Texas Pacific Railroad.

17.
Donaldson, Thomas
The Public Domain, Its History With Statistics
Government Printing Office, 1884 P/455

18.
Durham, Harold Hathaway
Government Handout
A Study in the Administration of the Public Lands 1875-189
Edwards Brothers, Inc. Ann Arbor 1941

P/4 "In the early days of the Republic, lands were used to help
solve fiscal problems.

P/6 "Homestead Law of 1862 was enacted after the Southern States
had ceded. Thereafter the public lands were to be used for the
national development rather than for national revenue."

19 .
Hibbard, Benjamin Horace Ph. D.
The History of the Public Land Policies McMillan C. 1924 P/347

20.
Circular from General Land Office showing the Manner of Proceeding to Obtain Title to Public Lands Under Preemption, Homestead, and Other Laws
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1892

P/8
"He (applicants) must file application, stating name, residence, P.O. Box address, description describing the land he desires to enter, make an affidavit that he is not the proprietor of more than 160 acres of land in any state or territory - that he is a citizen of the United States or that he has filed his intention to become such - that he is head of a family or over the age of twenty one years of age - that his application is honestly and in good faith made for the purpose of actual settlement and cultivation, and not for the benefit of any other persons, corporations"

21.
Nicolas C. Soza
Declaratory Statement for Cases where the Land is not subject to Private Entry (4-535), March 24, 1881, 120 acres at 29-12S-19E

Exhibits used are all from the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region, except 8.2 from National Archives, Wash., D.C., and, 20.1 Arizona State Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, and 20.2 from Legislative History of Arizona, compiled by George H. Kelly.

22.
DuBois, James T.
Galusha A. Grow, Father of Homestead Act
Speaker of the House of Representative during Lincoln's time. Led 10 year fight for successful passage of Homestead Act of 1862. P/61 Pre-emption Law of 1841

23.
Donaldson, Thomas
The Public Domain - Its History With Statistics
Government Printing Office 1884 P/682

24. History of Arizona Volume 4 F811

Thomas Edwin Farish F 3
Arizona Historian
Phoenix, 1916
P/247

Reckless, Romantic Redington
Arizona Highway Magazine
May 1958
P/ 34-39

Butterfield Overland Mail Across Arizona 1858-1861
Nineteen Century Military Pay
Constance Altschuler
Arizona Historical Society 1983
P/3

25.
Farish, Thomas Edwin, History of Arizona Volume 4
Arizona Historian, Phoenix 1916
P/247 The above located lands in the lower San Pedro valley. In February 1866 they commenced a ditch to carry water. In April 1866 they were ready to plant a crop of corn. Houses had been erected and a few troops came for their protection, and in a
short time there were 100 men, women and children in the valley. Depredation began in 1867

26 .
Exhaustive examination of RG 49 Arizona State Land Records
1870 to 1908 reveal no record of this enterprise.
National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region,
Laguna Niguel, California

27.
located at National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region
Laguna Niguel, California. Arizona State Land Records RG 49.

28. Digest of Public Land Laws Act of March 2, 1867 Index 304 "The Territory of Arizona is attached to the District of California (Sec. 4)."

29 .
Digest of Public Land Laws
Act of March 2, 1867 ch. 179, 14 Stat. 542

Index 304 P/94
Establishes Arizona Land District (Sec. 2). Authorizes Presidential appointment of register and receiver for the new district (Sec. 3).

30.
Prescott General Land Office
Records of Entries Filed Pursuant to the Homestead and
Pre-emption Acts. 1871-1908

Entries 1-30 were issued to Anglos who settled and filed in 1870. Entries were made in Township 1 North-Ranges 2 & 3 East

The first Mexican entry was made by Esteban Ramirez for 160 acres at 36-4S-9E. Ramirez settled on his land 11/17/1866 and filed his entry July 5, 1871.

31.
Digest of Public Land Laws
Act of February 18, 1873 ch. 160, 17 Stat. 465
Index 387 P/121

32.
#870 Notice of the Removal of The Land Office from Florence to Tucson, Arizona dated 4/22/1881. The office will be closed at Florence June 30, 1881. J.A. Williamson Commissioner GLO Henry Cousins, Register, C.E. Dailey, Receiver.

33.
Butterfield Overland Mail Across Arizona 1858-1861
Arizona Pioneer Historical Society
Arizona Silhouettes
P/3 "Aldrich was appointed Postmaster of Tucson 11/11/1857, Postmaster at Tucson 11/11/1857. Overland Mail was discontinued in 1861 and no mail was sent to Tucson until July 3, 1865, all owing to the Civil War. Mark Aldrich was re-appointed July 13, 1865 but he refused".

History of Arizona Volume 4 Thomas Parish 1915 P/247

34.
McKelvey, Nat
Reckless, Romantic Redington
Arizona Highway, May 1958 P/34-35

35. Ibid

36. This writer is adverse to hyphenating our population, though the thrust of this paper requires an adequate and distinguishing ethnic label.

37 .
Box 264
Abstract of Declaratory Statements, July 1873 to January 1908
Florence Office August 1873 to August 1881
Tucson Office August 1881 to September 1908
RG 49 Arizona State Land Records
National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region, Laguna Niguel, California.
Special Note: Hereafter all references to Box or Boxes pertain to: RG 49 Arizona State Land Records, National Archives, Laguna Niguel, California.

38.
Box 265 contains: Box 265 A and Box 265 B.
Box 265 A Pre-emption Declaratory Statements, Act of 1841
Box 265 B. Applications to Make Cash Purchase Act of 1877

39 .
The Public Domain
Its History with Statistics
Thomas Donaldson
Government Printing Office, 1884

P/445

Arizona Population 1870 1880
  9,658 40,000

40. Soza Cemetery located on south ridge of Soza Wash and 1.5 miles east of C - Spear Ranch. Buried there are: Antonio Campa Soza, Jesus Moreno Soza, Manuel Moreno Soza, Jose Maria Soza (infant), Francisca Moreno Soza Day, Refugia Moreno
Lopez Mungia, Tomas Mungia, Robert Michael Soza, Francisco Vijil (infant) buried with aunt Maria Montano, and unnamed infant son of Carlos Moreno Soza and Herminia Valenzuela.

41.
Arizona: Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern
Volume 1 & 2 , P/78 Picture of Bishop Henry R. Granjon

Arizona Historical Society

Picture of school children on file at Tucson.

Story of the Capilla dedication was told to this writer by: Ben Moreno Soza (uncle) Maria Moreno Soza Gonzales (aunt) in the 1970's. Ben and Maria were children of Antonio Campa Soza and Maria Jesus Moreno Soza.

Church and school are no longer standing.

42. Related to this writer by the late Benito Moreno Soza, Tucson on trip to the former Soza Ranch at Redington in 1974.

43.
Manuel Moreno Soza, the son of Antonio Soza and Maria Jesus Moreno was missing for two months, when his body was found fatally shot. He was buried at the site, thus was founded the Soza Cemetery 28-12S-19E.

44.
U.S. Geological Survey map of Redington Quadrangle N3215 1957, denotes Soza Ranch, Soza Cemetery, Soza Canyon and Soza Wash.

45. Pacheco, Rudy, A Case Study of a Pioneer Family Manuscript dated September 27, 1965. Copy in writer's possession, obtained in 1975 from Francisco "Poncho" Pacheco, Tucson.

46.
Box 264 Abstracts of Declaratory Statements 1873-1908

47. GLO letter "G" dated May 5, 1885
Box 264 DS 748 Antonio Soza settled SE 1/4 32-12S-19E on September 5, 1879. DS 700 Nabor Pacheco settled the same land on 4/1/1880. Per GLO letter "G" states that Soza will make no effort to hold the covered by his DS 748. Soza's entry was cancelled on account of conflict with DS 700.

48.
Boxes 259/263 Register of Homestead Entries 1873-1908

49.
Rudy Pacheco Manuscript dated September 27, 1965.
Telephone contact with Francisco Pacheco, Tucson in effort to locate Rudy Pacheco. The seventeen page typewritten manuscript is a historical and genealogical essay of the family
Copy in writer's possession..

50.
Box 264 Abstracts of Declaratory Statements

51.
Boxes 228/229 Register of Patents Delivered

52.
Pacheco, Rudy A Case Study of A Pioneer Family
September 27, 1965. Copy fn writer's possession

53. Box 264 Abstracts of Declaratory Statements Box 265 Eligibility to Preempt. Boxes 259/263 Register of Homestead Entries. Box 228/229 Register of Patents Delivered. Boxes 267/268 REgister of Final Homestead Certificates.

54.
RG 49 Arizona State Land Records, Bureau of Land Management
National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region,
Laguna Niguel, California


55.
Box 264 Abstracts of Declaratory Statements
Florence and Tucson #1-2734 and Phoenix #1-4
July 1, 1873 to January 21, 1908
Land entries filed pursuant to the Pre-emption Act of 1842 on land not offered at public sale.


56 .
Box 265 A
Declarations of an Individual's Eligibility to
Preempt Declaratory Statements
#1101 to 1891 1878-1886

"A Declaratory Statement was the first step to initiate a preemption land entry or to commute (convert from s a homestead to a pre-emption entry. The Act of 1841 stated that an individual could stake an exclusive claim on surveyed land. The maximum amount of land that could be purchased was 160 acres at a minimum price of $1.25 an acre. The Act of May 20 1862, stated that an individual could commute his land entry from a homestead to a pre-emption. The Act required that some type of improvement had been made on the land for at least 6 months and that the entryman had resided on the land for at least 6 months. The entryman could then pay $1.25 per acre and be granted patent to the land"

National Archives guide to RG 49 Arizona State Land records in writer's possession.

57. Box 265 A

58.
Box 265 A
Declarations of an Individual's Eligibility to Pre-Emption


59. Digest of Public Land Laws

Index 636 P/193

" Laws granting Pre-emption of public lands are repealed (Sec. 4)."

The History of Public Land Policies
Benjamin Horace Hibbard, Ph. D.
McMillan Co. 1924

P/167 Pre-emption Act-of 1891 "Changes made by the Commissioner was over impressed by fraudulent entries. Amount of land purchased under this right was not kept as a separate record, but included in Cash Sales, impossible to state acres preempted.

60.
Box 265 A

61.
Boxes 259/263 Register of Homestead Entries
Box 259 Volume 1 January 1873 to June 1881 Florence
July 1881 to February 1890 Tucson
Box 260 Volume 2 June 1890 to June 1899 Tucson
Box 261 Volume 3 February 1899 to June 1903 Tucson
Box 262 Volume 4 July 1903 to September 1905 Tucson
October 1905 to December 1907 Phoenix
Box 263 Volume 5 January 1908 to June 1908 Phoenix

62.
Boxes 259 to 263 Register of Homestead Applications
August 1, 1873 to June 29, 1906

"Arranged by application numbers (Tucson 1-5331 and Phoenix 1-1809) assigned chronologically. Entries patented after instigation of the serial filing system have their serial number (2883-4469) stamped above the application number." "This volume was maintained by the register to record applications filed pursuant to the various homestead acts ...The remarks usually refer to the final outcome of the application such as cancelled, contested, relinquished or patented."
National Archives Guide, copy in writer's possession.

63.
The Lure of the Land A Social History, The Public Lands
Everett Dick University of Nebraska Press/Lincoln 1970
P/35
"The Register kept two books:
The Tract Book, with description of the land, arranged by range, township, and section. On it was kept a record to whom land was sold, number of acres, names of persons of
purchasers, date of sale, certificate number and the name to whom land was patented.

Plat Book was the second. It contained maps of the land in each township."

This procedure must have been changed as the twenty four different sets of records examined were kept at the respective land offices at Prescott and Florence, then later at Florence and Tucson and finally only at Phoenix.

64.
Soza Cemetery and Apodaca Cemetery

65. A Grim and harsh reminder of the danger faced by settlers.

The Soza Cemetery was founded when Manuel Moreno Soza, the son of Antonio Campa Soza 1845-1915 and Maria Jesus Moreno 1855-1939, was found fatally shot. He had been missing about two months when his remains were found, a victim of foul play. Manuel was buried on the spot at section 28-12S-19E, east of bench mark 3041 and the Spear Ranch.

There are now ten graves at the Soza Cemetery as shown on U.S,. Geological Survey map Redington Quadrangle 15 minute Series,
Redington, Arizona N3215-W11015/15, 157

66.
Box 265 B
Application for Cash Purchase of Land. Application for land filed pursuant to (sec. 2) of the June 15, 1880 Act of Congress.
National Archives Manual in writer's possession

Three purchasers in Box 265 B are duplicated in Boxes 255/26.

Boxes 255
Abstract of Lands Sold 1873-1894 Volume one Florence Office
Box 256
Abstract of Lands Sold 1895-1908 Volume two
Tucson January 8/1895 to September 1905

Phoenix November 1905 to February 1905

67.
The American Settler's Guide P/51 #3

68.
Act of March 3, 1891 ch. 125, 19 Stat.1097
Digest of Public Land Laws

69.
Boxes 271/273 Five Volumes Abstract of Desert Lands Entered

January 2, 1886 to June 26, 1908
Desert Land Act of March 1877 permitted entry up to 640 acres. It was to promote Reclamation of desert lands and applicant was given up to 3 years to conduct water to the same. At the time of filing applicant paid twenty five cent (.25) per acre and final payment of $1,00 per acre could be made at time within three years.

Digest of Public Land Laws Index 445 P/136
ch. 102, 19 Stat. 315


70. The Public Domain by Thomas Donaldson
Its History with Statistics
Thomas Donaldson
Government Printing Office 1884
P/363


Digest of Public Land Laws
P/ 136 #445 Desert Land Act of 1877
Act of March 3, 1877 as amended Act of August 30, 1890 P/187 #616
Provided for 640 acres to be entered and amended to 340 acre in 1890.

71.
Digest of Public Land Laws Index 445 P/136

72. Digest of Public Land Laws Index 445 Desert Land Act of 1877, amended by Acts of August 30, 1890 ch. 837, 26 Stat. 391, March 3, 1891, ch. 101, 37 Stat. 106, etc.

73.
Boxes 274/275 Abstract of Final Desert Land Entries
November 24, 1879 to June 10, 1908

74.
Box 266 Application to Make Final Proof
Boxes 267/267 Register of Final Homestead certificates

75. GLO letter "C" to Register & Receiver, Florence, Arizona August 20, 1880. Complete copy writer's possession.

76. Complete copy Homestead Application 934 obtained from National Archives, Washington, D.C. In writer's possession.

Boxes 267/268
Register of Final Homestead Certificates
Volume two
Florence June 1873 to May 18 1877

78.
Boxes 267/268 Register of Final Homestead Certificates
Boxes 267/268
Box 267 1876 to 1899 #1 to #1000
Box 268 1900 to 1905 # 1002 to #1456 & #17 to #308

79.
Boxes 228/229
Record of Patents Delivered August 20, 1885/January 15, 1910.
Entries have the certificate number, name of person, date of patent, and to whom delivered. These records were reconstructed from information from other Boxers.

80. The Exiting Laws of the United States of a General and Permanent Character and Relating to the Survey and Disposition of the Public Domain. December 1, 1880 Government Printing Office, Washington 1884 P/85 Abandonment

"If homesteader before the 5 year period - leaves property, changes residence or abandons the land for more than 6 mores, the land reverts to the Government."

81 .
Boxes 259/263 and Box 264 DS 718 Placido Soza, 30-12S-19E 160
acres settled on May 24, 1878, filed May 24, 1880, and
relinquished on December 30, 1882.

82.
Conception Gonzales 24-128-18E
GLO letter "C" dated November 14, 1898

83.
GLO letter "G" Jose Antonio Rodriguez in conflict, relinquishes to Juan Soza, Cash Entry 218, October 11, 1882 32-12S-19E. Approved for patenting on April 18, 1884.

84.
Box 237/238 Land Entries Contested By Individuals
RG 49 Arizona State Land Records

85.
Patricia Preciado Martin Images and Conversations
Mexican American Recalls a Southwestern Past
University of Arizona Press Tucson 1983 P/85 Escalante

Thomas E. Sheridan Los Tucsonenses, The Mexican Community
1854-1941 - University of Arizona / Tucson 1989 P/71-72

86.
Box 228/229 Register of Patents delivered

87. GLO letter "C" proof of naturalization by Felix Madrid. Copy from National Archives in writer's possession.

88.
GLO letter "C" of February 12, 1887. refers to irregular issuance of Final Proof Certificate, Register's Final Certificate and Receiver's Final Receipt, on the April 20, 1879 Leonardo Apodaca DLE entry #170 for unsurveyed land described by metes and bounds containing 640 acres. Although UNSURVEYED LAND was ineligible for homestead, the Register and Receiver erred in receiving and processing DLE #170 made by Leonardo Apodaca. GLO Letter C copy in writer's file.

89. Shepard's Acts and Cases ...
Federal and State Acts G-Q Part two

90. National Archives of the United States
Executive Branch Manual
National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region
Laguna Niguel, California


 

 

A Walk Through The Past Affidavits of Contest New World Odyssey, A Search For Roots Hispanic Homesteaders in Arizona Mexican Homesteaders in the San Pedro River Arizona Pictorial Biography