Appendix 2
660BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF TUBAC

1519 Hernando Cortez landed Spanish force at Vera Cruz
1521 Aztec empire capital city of Tenochtitlan fell
1530 Nuño de Guzman destroyed Tarascan kingdom and trade route approaches to northern Piman territory from south
1539 North African Estebanico and Italian Fray Marcos reached northern Piman territory
1540 large Spanish expedition under Vásquez de Coronado passed through northern Piman territory
1542 aboriginal conditions in northern Piman country at an end with departure of Vásquez, results of Mixton War
1598 et. seq. northern Piman country brought back into contact with area of Spanish sovereignty and infectious epidemic region
1645 Franciscan missionaries from New Mexico reached northern Piman country
et. seq. New Mexican Spaniards established maize trade with northern Pimans
1680 Pueblo Revolt destroyed New Mexico, unleashed southern Athapascan hostiles on Sonora
1687 first Catholic mission founded within northern Piman territory
661 1691 first documented visit of Europeans to Santa Cruz River Valley in vicinity of Tubac, by missionary with escort
1692 New Mexico recolonized by Spaniards
1726 Tubac first identified by name by Father Joseph Agustín de Campos from Mission San Ignacio de Caburica
1732 May 4 Jesuit missionary Juan Baptista Grazhofer installed at Mission Holy Angels Gabriel and Rafael at Guebavi with Tubac as a visita
1740 Spaniards were living at Tubac managing a mission farm and ranch by this year
1744 infectious epidemic at Guebavi Mission
1747 infectious epidemic at Guebavi Mission
1749 infectious epidemic at Guebavi Mission; northern Pimans fight Seris with Spaniards
1751 infectious epidemic at Guebavi Mission; November 20-21-northern Piman Indians rebelled, threw Spaniards back to San Ignacio, Santa Anna and San Luís Valley with heavy losses; no deaths at Tubac whose residents fled to Tres Alamos
1752 January 4-2,000 northern Pimans decisively defeated at Aribaca; March 18-Captain General of the Pima Tribe Luís Oacpicagigua surrendered to Captain Joseph Díaz del Carpio at his encampment at Tubac, ending the Pima Revolt; late March-Tubac natives returned to their settlement for spring planting season; March 26-Upper Pimería Company founded at San Ignacio
662 1752 June 2 Governor Diego Ortiz Parrilla ordered the new company garrisoned at Tubac with an outpost at Ocuca; October 14-New Spain's Viceroy Don Juan Francisco de Guemes y Horcasitas, Count of Revilla Gigedo, approved Ortiz Parrilla's actions which he had authorized on the previous January 30th.
1759 September 7, Captain Juan Tomás de Beldarrain, founding commander of the Upper Pimería Company and royal fort of St. Ignatius Tubac died; Charles III acceded
1760 February 19, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza took command of Tubac
1766 Field Marshal Don Calletano María Pignatelly y Rubí, the Marqués de Rubí, inspected the Tubac post and company
1767 Members of the Society of Jesus were expelled from New Spain on orders of King Charles III
1768 Colonel Domingo Elizondo arrived in Sonora with giant military expedition to crush Indian opposition on Sonora's Gulf of California coast, utilizing presidial troops as well; Members of the Order of Friars Minor arrived to replace Jesuits In U pper Pimería, including the great missionary explorer Fray Francisco Garcés who went to Bac with an escort of Tubac troopers
1770 Captain Anza took time from the Gulf Coast campaign to pacify the Pápagos and arrange Indian affairs at Bac and Tucson
663 1771 Elizondo campaign came to successful close, presidial troops returned to posts and Apache border warfare; Father Garcés explored west of the Colorado River
1772 May 2, Captain Anza proposed to the viceroy his exploring a land route to Upper California; New Regulations
1774 January-May, Anza led the first military expedition from Sonora to Upper California; -frontier officers were inspecting sites for relocation of forts in accord with the New Regulations
1775 August, Commadant-Inspector Hugo O'Conor inspected Tubac and its new site at Tucson which he approved; -Anza returned from Mexico City with orders for a new colonizing expedition to Upper California which rode out of Tubac on October 23; -acting post commander Lt. Juan M. Oliva transferred the garrison to Tucson after October 23 (probably early in 1776)
1776 Tucson definitely established as a royal fort, leaving only civilians with a guard detail at Tubac; -Anza returned from Upper California but was promoted and transferred from Tubac company
1777 Tubac citizens wished to abandon the place but were prevented by Captain Pedro de Allande y Saabedra of Tucson; Frontier Provinces Commadant-General the Caballero de Croix left to Colonel Anza the decision on returning the garrison to Tubac, a dvancing it, or keeping it at Tucson
664 1779 Tubac citizens joined colonists at Colorado River
1783 Tubac was abandoned by this date
1786 Viceroy Galvez initiated new Apache policy
1787 St. Rafael Pima Indian Company transferred to Tubac
1788 The Great Offensive against southern Apaches brought wholesale surrenders of southern Athapascan bands in later years and effective pacification of the frontier
1816 Tubac suffered heavy mortality in smallpox epidemic
1821 first visit of a reigning Catholic bishop at Tubac; -September, last Spanish Viceroy recognized Mexico's independence from Spain as a result of actions of Spanish officers throughout the viceroyalty; -Santa Cruz River Valley land rush which began the year before was in full swing
1826 Mexican national congress recognized the existing frontier presidial system including the Tubac post
1828 Spaniards (with certain exceptions) expelled by Mexico; principal effect in Upper Pimería was departure of most Franciscan missionaries including Tubac's acting military chaplain
1832 large scale defection of peaceful Apaches from frontier posts, returning to economic raiding; Tubac Apaches stood fast; deterioration of presidios accelerated
1848 December, Apache raid killed 9 Tubac residents, triggered flight of survivors to Tucson and Bac where Indians from Tumacacori moved; Gold Rush began in Sonora and contributed to Tubac's abandonment
1849 Thousands of North American emigrants pass through Tubac en route to the California gold fields
1851 Mexican military colony established at Tubac after mid-September with strength of less than 100
1852 Mormons induced to start commercial farming at Tubac to supply emigrants and garrison forced out by drought
1853 July 17, Peaceful Apache ranchería of 120 persons returned to Tubac from Tucson
1854 January, hostile Apaches brought Tubac to verge of abandonment by stealing all animals of provision supply train near Santa Cruz; -September, news of ratification of Gadsden Purchase Treaty reached Tubac
1855 Tubac again abandoned as Mexican troops withdraw to Santa Cruz military colony
1857 Tubac Company mutinied with Santa Cruz company after a year without pay and five months on short rations

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