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C. The Tubaca Mission Farm

The mission farm established at Tubaca in the late 1730's seems to have had a fairly large Spanish population during its earlier years. On St. Valentine's day in 1740 two couples were married by the priest at Guebavi who were identified as vecinos of Tubaca (Santos Angeles de Guebavi, Libro 72de Casamientos, p. 9). Spaniards generally used this term vecino in much the same sense that United States pioneers employed the term "citizen"-that is, a "white man" with rights of self-government, as distinguished from Indians, colored men, or Chinese or other members of lesser races whose inferior caste was usually denoted with a specific identifying term denoting a member of subject group. Vecino will be translated as "citizen" throughout this report.

The fact that four unmarried Spaniards of marriageable age lived at Tubac in 1740 indicates that there was a sizeable Spanish population there to overawe the natives and change their heathen ways. None of the four newlyweds had the same surname, so at least four separate families were living at Tubac at that time.

One of the Spanish couples married early in 1740 proceeded to have a son who was baptized on November 12, 1741 (ibid., Libro de Bautismos, p. 6).

The first Spanish overseer of this mission plantation was very likely Francisco de Ortega, Luís Villela, or Roque Durán (ibid., Libro de Casamien-tos, p. 9). Miguel de Valenzuela may also have been an early worker there (ibid., Libro de Bautismos, p. 6). A decade later the Spanish settlement at the Tubac ranch was reduced to one family, that of ranch foreman Juan de Figueroa (Ignacio Oct. 15, 1754:77v).

Being close to Guebavi, the Tubac mission ranch was often visited by additional Spanish overseers on the mission staff.