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73D. Spanish-Style Native Government

Spaniards, in common with most colonial rulers, had difficulty in conceiving Indian self-government as genuine government (Simpson 1950:46) largely because they could not envision any form of government save their own. Therefore they attempted to remake native government in the Spanish image or an idealized version thereof.

Any well-run Indian mission required native officials to convey the commands and ideas of the missionaries to the general populace (Bolton 1939:144-145). Therefore the people of Tubac acquired a mador at least as early as 1743 (Libro de Baptismos de los Pueblos de Santa María...desde 1732, p. 34).

Any properly run native settlement in a Spanish colony legally should possess a governor. Sure enough, an Indian named Joseph was "Governor" of Tubac early in January of 1748. Since he had a son baptized at that time (Santos Angeles de Guebavi, Libro de Bautismos p. 83) he was probably not a very aged man. This Joseph was, in fact a redoubtable warrior very zealous in his pursuit of enemy Indians. So bitter against Apaches was Joseph that he defied the Jesuit missionary at Guebavi who forbade his accompanying an expedition against the Apaches in the Chiricahua Mountains. He fought with the great north-Piman leader Luís Oacppicagigua on this campaign, and suffered the consequences (Oacpicagigua Mar. 24, 1752:191).

74From the point of view of Spanish military officials on the frontier, one of the main purposes of sanctioning native officials was to facilitate raising levies of native auxiliaries to campaign against hostile Indians. The goals of missionary and administrator thus clashed and the church-state conflict between rival Spanish factions caught the northern Pimans between two powerful forces. Missionaries in New Spain enjoyed far more administrative power than missionaries ordinarily hold today. Governor Joseph very likely went off to fight Apaches in late 1748 when Spanish military authorities raised 300 Pimas and as many Opatas to fight Apaches during November and December. The net result of the great expedition was the death of a few enemy Indians and the capture of ten (Venegas 1759:II:208). Clearly Luís Oacpicagigua and Governor Joseph only obeyed orders when they departed on this campaign, and what got Joseph in trouble with the Jesuit priest was the latter's stiff-necked refusal to acknowledge civil authority over more-or less missionized Indians. This left Joseph in an untenable, and to him inexplicable, position between weak civil authorities and insubordinate missionaries.

In 1751, after Joseph was out of office, he participated in another campaign against the Apaches (Oacpicagigua, Mar. 24, 1752:191v).

A well run Indian community also had a captain who was generally a converted native war chief. Sure enough, a "captain of Tubac" existed by the spring of 1748 (Santos Angeles 75de Guebavi, Libro de Casamientos, p. 26), and probably some one had filled the office for some time previously.

The Spaniards also instituted the office of fiscal, a subordinate civil official under the governor. The incumbent in 1748 was called Christoval Babtuitoc (ibid., Libro de Casamientos, p. 26). A full complement of civil officials should include a temastian, and Tubac was provided with such by May of 1750 and probably long before. The 1750 office holder was known as Diego Quiumsa (ibid., p, 29).

Available records do not make clear whether these native officials changed annually as became the practice in many Indian communities where this Spanish colonial form of government became habitual and accepted. Office-holders at Tubac did change at least periodically. Possibly Governor Joseph was removed by Father Joseph Garrucho as part of his punishment for disregarding the priest's prohibition of his Apache pursuing proclivities and obedience to civil authority. At any rate by November of 1750, the Governor of Tubac was a man named Juanico (ibid., p. 30). His native cognomen known to the Spaniards was Jootctutuc (ibid., Librode Bautismos, p. 95). He remained in office on September 30, 1751. The office of captain of Tubac also changed hands, the incumbent in the spring of 1751 being one Fernando (ibid., Libro de Casamientos, p. 31).

Appointment of a full slate of village officials at Tubac implies that its population was large enough to justify treatment as a self-governing settlement.