D. Religion at St. Rafael at Tubac
The Franciscan missionaries at Tumacácori Mission served the garrison of the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac just as their predecessors had served the St. Ignatius company years before.
The missionary at Tumacácori when the Pima Company was transferred to Tubac was Fray Balthasar Carrillo (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 26). Carrillo recorded the rites of passage of the people of Tubac in most cases in record books of the military post. He may have started a separate set of books for the fort when the Pima Company was transferred there in 1787 or the company nay have brought with it books started at its previous location at San Ignacio Mission by the missionary-chaplain there, Fray Pedro Antonio de Arriquibar. At any rate, the military post had its own baptismal, marriage, and burial records (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 30) which served until 1806. 459In March of that year, Fray Narciso Gutierrez evidently filled up the pages of the original book or books, for he started a new set of records on April 1, parts of which survive (Libro***de las Partidas de Bautismos, Casamientos y de Entierros de Tropa y Vecindario del Presidio de San Rafael de Tubac, Que Empezó en 1.o de Abril del Ano de 1806).
The relationship between the missionaries who served at Tumacácori Mission and the people of the royal fort of St. Rafael was still as anomalous as that between earlier priests and the people of the earlier post of St. Ignatius. The primary responsibility of the Franciscans was the care and administration of their Indian mission, and they were nissionaries and not genuine military chaplains. At the same time, they were charged with administering to the members of the faith living at the military post, and the larger population there and the social proclivities and class loyalty of the priests inclined them toward somewhat more enthusiastic ministry to the garrison than to their neophytes.
The special situation of the missionaries at Tumacácori and to a large extent their personal inclinations were regularized by episcopal dispensation from the bishop. In 1797 Fray Angel Alonso de Prado, who was starting up the ladder of Franciscan offices to his later position as Guardian of the College of the Holy Cross at Queretaro, served briefly at Tumacácori in the confused period following the death of Carrillo after his long ministry. On July 4, 1797, Prado wrote to the bishop of Sonora petitioning for special privileges 460for the Tumacácori priests for a period of three years in order to enable them more efficiently to minister to the people of the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac. Although two priests were normally assigned to the mission at that period, one was often sick or absent, so Prado asked a dispensation so the remaining priest could celebrate multiple masses on Sundays and Holy days. Prado requested that masses of obligation for the mission Indians be allowed when there were twelve or more Indians present in the mission who were obligated to hear mass (Prado July 4, 1797).
The bishop of Sonora-at that time Fray Francisco de Rousset-granted the petition from Prado. He pointed out that this privilege had previously been given the Tumacácori missionaries, a fact of which Prado seemed to have been unaware, and that he was merely renewing it for another three-year period. The bishop's reply specified that one of the masses be celebrated at Tumacácori Mission for the Indians, and the second at the royal fort at Tubac. Furthermore, he specified that on those days when the Indians were not obliged to hear mass, the missionaries should not use the privilege granted unless there were at least a dozen persons present at the mission who were obliged to attend mass (Rousset August 26, 1797).
A short time later Prado returned to the College at Queretaro, leaving Tumacácori Mission without a friar who had been delegated the faculties of chaplain. When the president of the Upper Pimería missions wrote to the bishop to 461ask that these faculties be delegated to Prado's successor, he attempted to improve the situation by suggesting that the bishop delegate the necessary faculties to whatever priest the president might designate for the Tumacácori post (Yturralde Jan. 28, 1799). If that were done there would not be a long time lag when the missionary at Tumacácori lacked the proper faculties to officiate at the fort (in this case faculties for Prado's successor were not even requested until somewhat more than a year after his departure).
One measure of the unusual duties a Franciscan missionary faced as an acting military chaplain may be found in his custody of one of three keys to the post strongbox. To safeguard company funds and to check the operations of the post quartermaster, the strongbox was made with three looks to which the captain, the quartermaster and the chaplain held keys so "it used to be morally impossible that bad faith should take place" (Velasco 1850:93). The late colonial system also operated so that the post commandant could not disburse even half a real without the knowledge of the quartermaster and the quartermaster could not act against the interest of the troopers without the commandant's knowledge- both under the eye of the acting chaplain.
1. Hierarchical Visitations
During the period when missionaries at Mission St. Joséph at Tumacácori administered to the garrison and citizens 462of the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac, the Franciscans at Tumacácori and the other northern Pima missions continued to visit one another just as they had during the era of the first royal fort at Tubac. Some brotherly contact was thus maintained between the friars in these frontier outposts of the College of the Holy Cross back at Queretaro.
During this period administrative ties to frontier settlements such as Tubac and Tumacácori were considerably closer than in times previous. The reformations of colonial administration instituted by King Charles III had their effects and the high birth rate in New Spain began overhauling the death rates so settlement density increased toward the frontiers. Moreover, there is good evidence that the final days of the Spanish Empire were the peak of the mission period for the College at Queretaro, when it was able to send more priests into the missions than ever before or since, and had the headquarters staff to make occasional personal inspection tours on the remote frontier. In addition the erection of the Diocese of Sonora by King Charles III had brought the seat of a bishop much closer to the frontier than the former cathedral at the City of Durango.
a. The Collegiate Visitor in 1795. In the year 1795 a priest was dispatched from the headquarters of the northern Pima Franciscan missionaries at the College of the Holy Cross at Queretaro to make a tour of these frontier missions. This inspector was Fray Diego Bringas de Manzaneda (Ezell 1956:151).
463Bringas visited as many of the missions as he was able, including Tumacácori (Yturralde April 3, 1797:8). He went on north from Tumacácori and Tubac not only to the mission at Bac and its visitation station at the Indian pueblo of Tucson across the Santa Cruz River from the royal fort of St. Agustín (ibid., f. 6), but also continued downstream to the Gila River and the remote Pima villages there (Ezell 1956:157). The annotated maps of his journey are known today (ibid., p. 158), but no journal record or report by Bringas on this journey has as yet been located.
b. The Episcopal Visitor in 1796-1797. In 1796 the new fourth bishop of Sonora-still bishop-elect Francisco Rousset dispatched his friend and aide Lic. Manuel M. Moreno to visit his diocese. This Sinaloan lawyer requested reports on the population of the northern missions and military posts, as well as the condition of their church buildings and missionary quarters when he visited these outposts during his tour of ecclesiastical inspection.
Moreno carried an impressive list of offices with him: he was attorney of the royal Audiencia of Mexico, Synodal Examiner of the Diocese, Judge (of Canon Law), Inspector of Wills, Chaplaincies and Pious Works, Provisor (a combined state-church office), Vicar-general, Subdelegate chaplain-general, and Inspector of secular clergy for the Bishop of Sonora (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 31-31v). Unfortunately Moreno did not carry a document from the Bishop making him inspector of the regular clergy-those who were members of various orders such as the Order of Friars Minors. Therefore the Franciscan missionaries carefully voided his visitation entries in their mission records some months after his visit. Fray Angel Alonso de Prado voided the Tumacácori entries on October 21, 1797 (ibid., Libro de Bautismos f. 31v; Libro de Entierros f. 152v). Probably the Tubac entries were voided the same day.
This is not to say that Moreno was received discourteously nor prohibited from inspecting the missions during his tour. The lack of authorization was apparently nothing more serious than an administrative slip-up by an inexperienced new bishop or his clerks. It did not seem to hamper Moreno's actual visits to the missions although it later invalidated them.
It was on January 15, 1797 that Lic. Manuel M. Moreno completed his inspection of the Mission of Tumacácori and approved its books. He was accompanied by his notary, Francisco Antonio de Grijalva, and probably had some sort of escort for protection against possible Indian attack.
The arrival of so distinguished a visitor must have been a very signal social event in the humdrum frontier lives not only of the missionaries but also the people of the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac, and quite likely Moreno and his notary were entertained by the post commander at least once during the visit.
465Lic. Moreno had requested Fray Maríano Bordoy, acting head of the Tumacácori Mission, to prepare for him a report on the population of the mission and its physical condition. This Fray Maríano did, and the resulting document was taken back to the diocesan seat at Culiacan, Sinaloa- where Bishop Rousset established it (Almada 1952:702)-where the report was deposited in the cathedral archives. There the historian Sr. Antonio Nakayama discovered it while organizing the archive. He brought the document to the Ninth Congress of Mexican History hold at Hermosillo, Sonora, in 1949, where Mr. Alfred F. Whiting made a typescript of it. He published a translation in 1953.
Similar reports were prepared for Lic. Moreno by the missionaries of the other frontier missions, but no similar report for the fort at Tubac has yet been discovered.
c. The Presidential Visitor in 1797. About a year after Lic. Manuel M. Moreno's visit to the frontier missions, the Father President of the eight Franciscan missions in northern Pima Indian country under friars from the College of the Holy Cross at Queretaro prepared a detailed report on the basis of written reports from the various missionaries and his personal visit which followed Moreno's by a few months (Yturralde April 3, 1798).
The president of the Pimería Alta missions at that time was Fray Francisco Yturralde, missionary at Tubutama. Starting there he descended the river to Caborca (ibid., f. 1-4v), 466and then swung east to Saric (ibid., f. 5-5v) and from there north to the northernmost mission of St. Francis Xavier del Bac where Fr. Juan Bautista Llorens was completing the present magnificent church structure (ibid., f. 5v-7) with financial help from Mission Tumacácori (ibid., f. 12) which had a market for its produce at the adjacent military post of Tubac. After visiting the native village at Tucson, the Father President turned south to pass through Tumacácori and Tubac (ibid., f. 8-8v) but he had nothing to say about the royal fort to which the Tumacácori missionaries administered. Continuing through Cocóspera (f. 8v-9v) to San Ignacio (ibid., f. 9v-10), Yturralde returned to his own mission from Magdalena (ibid., f. 10-11).
d. The Collegiate Visitor in 1814. After the political disturbances in Spain resulting from the NapoLeónic wars and the abortive revolt led by Hidalgo in New Spain in 1810, the restored Spanish monarchy and its high appointive officials in the latter kingdom realized that far-reaching reform measures would be required to lay the ghost of republicanism and independence. These reforms extended into affairs in the charge of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1814, another visitor of the College of the Holy Cross at Queretaro made his way through the northern Sonora missions, inspecting and commending the priests, but at the same time ordering extensive changes in Mission activity. This Fray Juan Bautista Cevallos certainly visited Tumacácori Mission and its military post 467neighbor during his inspection tour, but inasmuch as no documents have been found detailing his actions there, they must be inferred from his lengthy report on his visit to Bac.
e. The Episcopal Inspection in 1820 and 1821. On the very eve of independence from Spain, the frontier posts in northern Sonora were finally visited for the first time by a reigning bishop. He was known as Bernardo del Espiritu Santo, the name he had assumed upon entering the Carmelite order although his original name was Bernardo Martinez Ocejo (Almada 1952:453). Bishop Bernardo had been confessor to the viceroy, and was consecrated in the City of Mexico on December 27, 1817.
The Bishop of Sonora completed his inspection of the Mission of Tumacácori on the first day of the new year of 1821 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Casamientos f. 34-34v; Libro de Entierros f. 175) and also his visit to Tubac (Libro de las Partidas... de Tubac... f. 9-9v). He was accompanied by his secretary Domingo Espinosa de los Monteros and undoubtedly by an escort for protection against hostile Indians.
This visit by an actual living bishop must have been a great event in the lives of rustic frontiersmen. Despite the previous delegations of the episcopal power of confirmation, even those to whom it had been delegated were neither numerous enough nor mobile enough to keep properly up with the growing children in each generation so that thousands of Sonorans had never been confirmed even though they might be 468devout Christians. During his first episcopal visitation, which lasted from January 1820 until his return from the last outpost at Tucson in April of 1821, Bishop Bernardo confirmed more than 70,000 persons (Almada 1952:454). Some of those thousands lived at Mission Tumacácori and the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac. The little chapel at the military post must have been very crowded as the unconfirmed adults, teenagers and older children crowded in to receive the bishop's confirmation! The splendor of holiday finery must have been the greatest display of fine clothing ever seen on that part of the frontier! And the mescal probably flowed freer than ever the night following.
2. The Interim Chaplaincy
The Indian garrison of the royal fort at Tubac did not rate a chaplain of its own. Its original station at San Ignacio Mission and later at Tubac within three miles of Tumacácori Mission where there were Franciscan missionaries to the Indians who could be depended upon to minister to the spiritual needs of the troops further militated against adding a chaplain to the company complement.
So a succession of Franciscans stationed at Tumacácori did in fact minister to the troops and settlers at the royal fort and their position was regularized to the extent of making them interim chaplains of the garrison. In the absence of the records kept at the fort prior to 1806, it is impossible 469to know just when this administrative device was first adopted. It probably was instituted at the time the company was transferred to Tubac in 1787. At any rate, the Prado-Rousset correspondence already cited makes clear the bishop's delegation of his chaplain's faculties, and in May of 1799 Fray Narciso Gutierrez, then minister of Tumacácori, referred to himself as "Interim Chaplain of Tubac" (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 33) and he occasionally repeated this designation in his records.
a. Fray Balthasar Carrillo. The priest stationed at Tumacácori Mission when the Pima Company was transferred there in 1787 was the man who had succeeded Fray Pedro de Arriquibar, the last Franciscan missionary to fill in as chaplain of the original Tubac garrison. Fray Balthasar Carrillo began officiating at Tumacácori on April 21, 1780 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Entierros f. 137v), if not earlier, following Arriquibar's departure on March 27 (ibid., Libro de Casamientos f. 8v) for San Ignacio Mission.
Carrillo was another Peninsulare born in the year 1723 in the Villa of Titero which was part of the Kingdom of Navarre. He had joined the Order of Friars Minor in the City of Logroño in the order's Province of Rioja, and came to the College of the Holy Cross of Queretaro in the Province of Burgos. Thus, when Fray Balthasar arrived at Tumacácori Mission in 1780 he was about fifty-seven years old. He remained there for the next fifteen years, all the rest of his life. 470He died at his post at three p.m. on October 10, 1795, having received extreme unction and confessed himself to Fray Narciso Gutierrez, and was buried on October 11 at the foot of the main altar of the church (ibid., Libro de Entierros, f. 150).
When Fray Ramón Liberos constructed the present church building at Tumacácori, he transferred the bones of Father Carrillo to the new structure (ibid., p. 69-70). After this church had become a national monument, Carrillo's remains were disinterred during excavations in the 1930's and removed to the Franciscan mission at St. Francis Xavier at Bac for re-interrment. An epitaph in the mortuary chapel there commemorates this priest.
b. Fray Florencio Ybañez. One of the numerous priests who served briefly at Tumacácori Mission following the death of Carrillo was Fray Florencio Ybañez (ibid., Libro de Bautismos f. 29v). He seems to have stayed only during a part of December of 1795. He then returned to Saric Mission (Yturralde April 3, 1798:5v) where he had been stationed since the spring of 1783 at least (Libro de Bautismos de los Yndios naturales del Pueblo de San Francisco del Atí de 1757, f. 44).
c. Fray Ramón Lopez. The permanent successor to Father Balthasar Carrillo selected by the Bishop of Sonora was Fray Ramón Lopez (Yturralde May 31, 1797:1). His earliest entries in surviving mission records indicate that he was officiating at Tumacácori as early as April 7, 1796 (San José de Tumacácori, 471Libro de Bautismos, f. 30). He continued as late as April 25, 1797 (ibid., Libro de Entierros f. 153v). Lopez was in very poor health and the president of the Franciscan missions in northern Pima country notified the bishop the next month that Lopez had left Tumacácori for that reason (Yturralde May 31, 1797:1). Lopez transferred to another mission, however, officiating at Oquitoa by June 4 of 1797 (Libro de Bautismos del Partido de Huquitoa de 1757) and remaining at that visita of Atí until mid-November of 1798. The next two years he spent at Caborca, visiting the stations at Pitiquito and Bísanig from as early as June 20, 1799 (Libro de Entierros, San Diego del Pitiquito) to as late as August 7, 1800 (Libro I de Baptismos para el Pueblo de N. Sra. del Populo de Bísanig).
d. Fray Angel Alonso de Prado. Successor to the ailing missionary at Tumacácori, Ramón Lopez, was Fray Angel Alonso de Prado (Yturralde May 31, 1797:1) who probably arrived about mid-April of 1797. For some reason Prado seems not to have officiated very often at baptisms and other rites of passage of the people of the mission. He may have chosen to devote himself to administering to the people of the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac, leaving mission affairs to his companions.
The only rite of passage Prado performed during his tour of duty at Tumacácori of which record has survived was a marriage of a Pápago widower with a Pima Indian widow at Tumacácori on July 7, 1797 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Casamientos, f. 17-17v). 472He was thanked for his zeal and application by the visiting president of the Upper Pimería missions on October 1, 1797 (Yturralde April 3, 1798:8v). As priest in charge of the mission he voided the visitation entries by Lic. Manuel María Moreno on October 21, 1797 (Libro de Bautismos, f. 31v, San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Entierros f. 152v). It was Prado who petitioned the bishop for permission to celebrate masses at both Tumacácori Mission and the royal fort on the same day (Prado July 4, 1797).
Prado had come to Tumacácori from a brief tour from at least January of 1796 (Libro Segundo de Baptismos, S. Diego del Pitiqui f. 55v), to April 9, 1797, at Caborca Mission, the northwesternmost outpost of Christianity in all New Spain (Libro I de Baptismos para el Pueblo de N. Sra. del Populo de Bísanig, f. 93-94v). Probably he had left Tumacácori by early January of 1798 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 32). Prado returned from Tumacácori to the Franciscan college at Queretaro.
By 1815 Prado had become the Guardian-the top official-of the College of the Holy Cross at Queretaro, of which all the Franciscans in the northern Piman missions were members (Prado Oct. 18, 1815:95). He was, therefore, the priest who advanced highest in the Church hierarchy of all those who served at Tumacácori Mission.
e. Fray Maríano Bordoy. The priest who carried the main burden of administration at Tumacácori Mission between the death of Fray Balthasar Carrillo in the fall of 1795 and the 473permanent assignment there of Fray Narciso Gutierrez at the beginning of 1798 seems to have been Fray Maríano Bordoy. Bordoy's earliest baptism of record at Tumacácori was performed on March 17, 1796 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 30). He then officiated fairly frequently until October of 1797 (ibid., Libro de Entierros, f. 154), apparently continuing intensive work at the mission until January 7, 1798 (ibid., Libro de Bautismos f. 31v). His application and zeal were applauded by the Father President of the Franciscan Missions in Upper Piman country on October 1, 1797 (Yturralde April 3, 1798:8v).
During this period Fray Maríano made a census of the mission population and reported the condition of the mission buildings for Lic. Manuel M. Moreno (Whiting 1953). Bordoy seems to have stayed at Tumacácori until the end of June in 1799 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos, f. 33). Then he was transferred to Tubutama Mission (San Pedro y San Pablo de Tubutama, Libro de Bautismos, f. 22v).
f. Fray Narciso Gutierrez. Sometime during the final months of Fray Balthasar Carrillo's tenure at Tumacácori Mission, Fray Narciso Gutierrez was sent there to assist the aging priest in charge, and it was Gutierrez who confessed and shrived and buried him (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Entierros, f. 150). Gutierrez officiated at Tumacácori for the first time in November of 1794 (ibid., Libro de Bautismos f. 29), but he may not have been stationed there until August of the following year (ibid., f. 29V). That assignment lasted 474until the end of February of 1796 (ibid., f. 30). It was Gutierrez's first experience as a missionary (Gonzales Jan. 4, 1820).
Fray Narciso returned to Tumacácori in the early part of January of 1798 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 32). On January 28 of 1799 the president of the Upper Pimería missions requested the newly consecrated Bishop of Sonora to delegate Gutierrez the faculties of a chaplain (Yturralde January 28, 1799) so he could care for the people of Tubac properly. Gutierrez continued to officiate at Tumacácori throughout most of his remaining mortal years. Well through his seventh year of continuous service there, Fray Narciso was transferred in September of 1804 along with his assistant Saravia (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 39). He did not return again until the end of May in the following year (ibid, Libro de Entierros, f. 162). He then continued to officiate at Tumacácori and Tubac until the second day of November in 1820 (ibid., Libro de Entierros f. 175), although he had been growing feeble for some time.
Just as Gutierrez had been sent to assist Carrillo through his last days on earth, Fray Juan B. Estelric was sent to help him through his final months. After perhaps a month of apparently complete debility, the fifty-five year old (Gonzales Jan. 4, 1820) priest departed this life for the eternal on December 13, 1820 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Entierros, f. 175v).
475g. Fray Manuel Saravia. During his long years of service at Tumacácori Mission, Father Narciso Gutierrez enjoyed the company and aid of at least one assistant for a brief period. This helper was Fray Manuel Saravia, who spent several months from late February to mid-June of 1804 at Tumacácori Mission (ibid., Libro de Bautismos f. 38-38v). Saravia apparently came to Tumacácori from Mission Caborca where he had been at least as early as October 18, 1802 (Libro I de Baptismos para el Pueblo de N. Sra. del Populo de Bísanig, f. 100v), and as late as January 9, 1804 (San Diego de Pitiquito, Libro de Entierros).
h. Fray Joséph Ignacio Ramirez. The priest who substituted for Gutierrez and Saravia was Fray Joséph Ignacio Ramirez, who took over at Tumacácori early in September (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 39), before they departed, and remained there until the middle of May of 1805 (ibid., Libro de Entierros f. 162) when Gutierrez returned.
i. Fray Gregorio Ruiz. Fray Gregorio Ruiz seems to have been a visitor to Tumacácori Mission rather than an assistant to Father Gutierrez. He may actually have been assigned there during a period from early November in 1806 (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 42) until the end of October of the following year (ibid., f. 43). He died at a neighboring mission, possibly Cocóspera, in the middle of January of 1817, attended by his brother friar Narciso Gutierrez (ibid., Libro de Entierros f. 171).
476j. Fray Juan Bautista Llorens. Father Gutierrez did not have to stay at Tumacácori Mission without any respite from his duties. From time to time he was able to go away for a vacation or break in duty, even after his return in 1805. In the spring of 1808 he left the mission for a short while in charge of Fray Juan Bautista Llorens, the missionary in charge of Mission St. Francis Xavier at Bac. Llorens was by 1808 another long-time veteran of the Franciscan missions in northern Pima country, having served at Bac since 1790 and at Atí before that (Bancroft 1834:I:690) from 1787. Llorens officiated at Tumacácori with knowledge and permission of the then-president of the northern Pimería missions (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 43v).
k. Fray Juan Bautista Estelric. The last Franciscan missionary to serve at Tumacácori Mission and administer to the royal fort of St. Rafael at Tubac was Fray Juan Bautista Estelric. Sent to succor Father Narciso Gutierrez during his last days, Estelric began officiating at Tumacácori Mission by mid-November of 1820 (ibid., Libro de Entierros, f. 175). He remained at this post until May of 1822 (ibid., f. 177). Thus Estelric saw the end of Spanish rule in the fall of 1821 and became the first acting chaplain of the Tubac company under independent Mexico as well as the last acting chaplain to the royal garrison.
Estelric came to Tumacácori Mission from San Ignacio Mission where he had begun his missionary career in 1818 at the age of thirty-one (Gonzales January 4, 1820). After leaving 477Tumacácori Estelric served at Pitic which was soon to be renamed Hermosillo from June 5, 1824, for about one year (Pinart November 23, 1878:10).
3. The Compadrazco System at Fort St. Rafael
The troopers of the Pima Company were apparently and expectedly quite acculturated Indians who had adjusted themselves markedly to Hispanic culture. They were staunch Catholics, at least in form, and participated wholeheartedly in the customary acquisition of godparents for their children at time of baptism, marriage, etc. They also provided an intermediate social group to which less acculturated Indians could fairly easily relate, and the compadrazco system seems to have facilitated this reference group function of the post garrison.
Shortly after the Pima Company transferred to Tubac, the wife of one of its soldiers acted as baptismal godmother to a Pápago boy (San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Bautismos f. 26) in January of 1788. Fray Balthasar Carrillo may have discouraged formation of such socio-religious ties, however, for few were recorded during his tenure at Tumacácori Mission. After his death the priests who followed began to record a number of such social alliances. In the middle of December of 1795, a woman from Tubac was baptismal godmother to a Yuma boy about three years old (ibid., f. 29v). The frequency with which Lt. Nicolás de la Errán and his wife Loreta Marquéz acted as baptismal godparents has already been discussed. 478In April of 1816 it was one of the Otero men who became a godfather of a Pápago young man convert (ibid., f. 52).