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CHAPTER VIII:
THE ROYAL FORT OF ST. RAFAEL AT TUBAC

E. Social Characteristics of the Fort St. Rafael, continues

5. Marriage

The settlement at Tubac during the period the St. Rafael Pima Indian company was stationed there prior to Mexican independence appears to have been about equally endogamous and exogamous in choice of mates. A sample of sixty-six marriages which occurred during the twenty-year period 1802 through 1821 has been found in various church records. Of this sample twenty-four or 36.4 per cent were exogamous. Eighteen of these marriages involved Tubac brides who married grooms from other settlements and presumably emigrated to the groom's 493residence in accord with the Spanish patrilocal or male neolocal residence pattern. These marriages were 27.3 per cent of the sample and 75 per cent of the known exogamous marriages in the sample. This high proportion of emigrating brides in the known exogamous marriages indicates that the sample is not representative because it does not include a large number of brides of Tubac men who were married at their home towns and then migrated to Tubac to live. Since the church records dealing with Tubac and environs are the main source of the records used for this sample, marriages at the home towns of brides from other settlements who moved to Tubac are clearly underrepresented. If as many brides moved to Tubac as left it, there should have been eighteen additional marriages in the sample, all exogamous. If such were indeed the case, there were eighty-four marriages during the twenty year period of which exactly half were exogamous.

The six known exogamous marriages which did not involve a bride emigrating from Tubac to her groom's home town mated four couples who had immigrated to Tubac from other settlements prior to marriage (they were exogamous marriages in terms of settlement of origin although endogamous at the time they occurred) and two brides from other towns who came to Tubac to be married instead of following the general pattern of making the groom journey to the bride's home town for the marriage ceremony. One of these girls married a man who had immigrated to Tubac; the other married a native so far as known.

494Fifteen of the marriages in the documented sample of sixty-six involved soldiers, a percentage of 22.7. This suggests that the total population of the Tubac settlement was somewhat more than four times the strength of the St. Rafael Pima Company.

Two-thirds of the marriages in the documented sample united previously unmarried men and women. One-sixth of the sample marriages involved a bachelor marrying a widow, and such unions comprised exactly one-fourth of the documented exogamous marriages compared to only 11.9 per cent among endogamous marriages. The same number of Tubac widows found widowers to marry at Tubac as found bachelors to marry elsewhere during the twenty-year period. Again documentation is lacking on widows from other settlements who may have found mates among either the bachelor or widower population of Tubac. Nonetheless it would appear that a widow stood a much better chance of marrying a bachelor from elsewhere and a widower from Tubac when she remarried.

Widowers were able to find previously unmarried women for their second mates also. Such marriages comprised nine and a tenth per cent of the documented sample, two-thirds endogamous and a third exogamous in terms of residence-and one may assume probably equally exogamous and endogamous had records of maidens from other towns marrying Tubac widowers been found (Libro de las Partidas de...Casamientos...de Tubac; and San José de Tumacácori, Libro de Casamientos).

495So far as favorite months for marriage went, the women of Tubac did not prefer June as a marriage month-of if they did they very seldom managed to achieve this ideal. The months when most couples married were July in the hot Sonoran summer, and February, with fifteen per cent of the total marriages during the twenty-year period in each of those two months. May was close behind with thirteen and a half per cent. August, September and December each had nine per cent of the total marriages, followed by April and October, June, January and November in that order. No one married during the month of March during the entire twenty-year period.

6. Morality

The morality of the Tubac garrison and citizenry was apparently improved no whit by substituting a Pima Indian company for the earlier Spanish-mestizo-mulatto outfit. Again, the documentary evidence is scanty, but a bit exists.

In the spring of 1811 the post chaplain at Tucson applied to the Bishop of Sonora for dispensation to permit the marriage of a Tucson boy with a Tubac girl (Arriquibar March 6, 1811).  The difficulty from a doctrinal point of view was simply that the young man, who was a bachelor, had already acquired carnal knowledge of his prospective bride's sister. In other words, the girls of Tubac could be had, especially if you were a son of an officer at Tucson.

At least some of them could.

4967. Involuntary Servitude

The Spanish officers and Pima men of the St. Rafael company practiced Indian slavery just as the earlier garrison at Tubac had.

On April 12, 1789, Sergeant Bernardino Camargo was over at Tubutama acting as godfather to a nine-year old Yuma girl baptized there (Libro de Bautismos, f. 13, San Pedro y San Pablo de Tubutama). He had probably just purchased her from some Pápagos who had brought her in to the mission from a recent raid on the Colorado River. Father Maríano Bordoy baptized a sick Yuma at the fort in 1796 (Whiting 1953:10) who may have been another Indian slave.

Human slavery was such an accepted institution in New Spain even at this period that when the Bishop of Sonora ordered the missionary priests under his jurisdiction who served as acting post chaplains to institute educational reforms in 1803, he specifically urged them to "exhort the family heads on Sundays and feast days during the sermons which you should deliver during the divine offices to send their children, servants and slaves to learn the Christian Doctrine and listen to your explanations on Saturdays..." (Rousset August 4, 1803:2).

8. Education

There was some attempt made at formally educating the children of Tubac after the turn of the century, and there were at least a few residents with some pretensions to knowledge. 497Probably the best educated man in the area did not live at the post but at nearby Tumacácori Mission. The Franciscan friars there were at least able to read and write and expound Christian doctrine. They had received some higher education, and they possessed the great advantage of a small library.

a. Catholic Instruction. In 1803, if no earlier, the missionary at Tumacácori was ordered to impart sound Christian knowledge to the children of the fort populace. Before that time the missionaries had no doubt interpreted their assignments as primarily to the Indians of the mission, and devoted most of their time to Indian work. The Bishop of Sonora changed that situation with his circular of the fourth of August of 1803 (Rousset August 4, 1803). This was a general episcopal instruction to all the frontier missionaries serving as presidial chaplains.

The Bishop reminded his priests of the injunctions of the Council of Trent to parish pastors, and that their positions as acting chaplains made them in effect curates of the forts where they served. He pointed out that one of the most important duties of curates was to teach "at least on every Sunday and principal feast day the rudiments of our Holy Faith, the obedience owed natural and political fathers, the observance of divine and human laws, and all the evangelical maxims which form the fundamental plan of our Christian Religion" (ibid., f. 1). The echoes of the recent French Revolution are easily heard in the Bishop's concern for obedience 498of the population of the military posts on the vital northern frontier.

b. Public School. Possibly the same hope of staving off the inevitable lay behind a more sweeping reform planned by Commandant-General Nemusio Salcido, who ordered elementary schools established in all of the forts on the frontier. The military chaplains received another duty as a result of the Commandant-General's order-they were to attend these schools for one hour every Saturday to examine the students and to explain to them points of Christian doctrine which seemed appropriate (ibid., f. 1v). The Bishop amplified this provision by ordering the post chaplains to call together at the post chapel with its bells at an hour agreeable to the post commandant not only the school children, but also any other young people of any caste or quality-citizens' children, servants or slaves (ibid., f. 2).

The missionaries were instructed to have the assembled children recite the Hail Mary, the Creed, the Commandments of God and of the Church, the Articles of Faith, the Holy Sacraments and the seven capital vices. The most apt pupils were to be encouraged by special attention and solemn reception into the local church congregation to motivate the others to improve. The Bishop reminded his ministers to point out to the perhaps reluctant people that Pope Innocent XI had granted indulgences to anyone who attended such a session of explication of any point of doctrine, and he added his episcopal indulgence for forty days for any occasion any 499one of either sex attended the classes in the presidial chapels (ibid., f. 2-2v).

The circular ordering these reforms reached Fray Narciso Gutierrez on January 7, 1804, and he acknowledged it at Tubac on January 9th, promising to give it the obedience due it (ibid., f. 3).

No evidence has been found to prove that a school of first letters was actually established at Tubac as a result of the Commandant-General's order. A few years later pioneer Tubac settler Toríbio de Otero styled himself "teacher of first letters" in a petition to the Intendent-Governor (Otero 1805:1), but he was then apparently residing at Arizpe and may well have been a teacher at that fairly large sized community. It is quite possible, of course, that a school was established at Tubac and that Toríbio de Otero from Cucurpe and land-grant holder at Tubac since 1789 was its first instructor. If such a school were in fact founded, it was the first public school operated within the boundaries of modern Arizona and the first supported with public funds.

c. Advocate. While the question whether Tubac had a public school and teacher cannot yet be settled, the post definitely had a man capable of acting as a trial lawyer, although he probably held no law degree and was not a practicing attorney. In the summer of 1813 a creole or mestizo cowboy at Mission St. Francis Xavier at Bac murdered his wife.  When finally apprehended, he pled the unwritten law, claiming that his late spouse had betrayed him with a low-down Indian 500from Tucson and he had slain her in a fit of anger after catching the pair together in his house with the door closed. In his hearings before the judicial officials at Tucson, this Francisco Xavier Díaz was defended by a Tubac resident named Alexo García (García Feb. 24, 1814:17v-18). After the trial, García had to swear that he had offered a true defense in good faith (Sotelo April 27, 1814:18v-19).

Don Alexo García was one of those upper-class citizens of Tubac sought as a godparent and marriage witness, acting in the latter capacity, for example, for Juan José Orosco of Tucson and Esperanza Zambrana of Tubac on May 7, 1815 (Libro de las Partidas de...Casamientos...de Tubac ...f. 1v).

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