On March 18, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order
No. 9102, "Establishing the War Relocation Authority in the Executive
Office of the President and Defining its Functions and Duties." This order
created a civilian agency in the Office for Emergency Management to provide
for the removal of persons or classes of people from designated areas
as previously denoted under Executive Order No. 9066. The Authority embarked
on a rapid trajectory of planning and building 10 relocation camps that
would house more than 110,000 Japanese Americans who lived chiefly inside
the boundaries of Military District 1 along the Pacific Coast. A map
shows how the WRA dispersed the camps across the western United States.
This Web exhibit features images from approximately forty photographs
taken for the War Relocation Authority and vividly depicts life in Arizona's
two camps. Follow the Camp Life link to view the images.
Butte WRA camp, looking southwest
credit: Wartime Relocation Authority
Poston WRA camp under construction
credit: Wartime Relocation Authority
Two of the larger camps that received the trainloads of evacuees were
located in Arizona. One was the Colorado River Relocation Center (April
1942 - March 1946), on Colorado Indian lands near Poston, 12 miles southwest
of Parker in La Paz (formerly part of Yuma)
County, that had a peak population of about 18,000. The other was constructed
at Rivers, on leased Pima-Maricopa Indian lands in west central Pinal
County, and was known as the Gila River Relocation Center (May 1942 -
February 1946) with a population of about 13,000. While extant, these
sites became two of the larger centers of concentrated population in the
state. Until it closed offices on June 30, 1946, the Authority carried
the responsibility of housing, feeding, employing and otherwise providing
services for citizens who had been hastily and summarily placed in an
alien social and geographical environment by their federal government
in a fevered time of world war.
The engineers typically designed the fenced camps in block arrangements
wherein each block contained 14 barracks, 1 mess hall and 1 recreation
hall on the outer edges, and ironing, laundry, and men's and women's lavatories
on the interior. Households were assigned space in the spartan 100 by
20 foot family structures of wood and tar paper according to the number
of people in their household. Other structures in the camp were designated
for dry and cold warehouses, car and equipment repair and storage, administration,
schools, canteens, library, religious services, hospitals, and post office.
Cooperatives purchased and distributed merchandise; efficient work groups
formed around the manufacture of camouflage nets and ship models used
as training aids for naval personnel; vegetables and fruit were cultivated
for camp and commercial consumption; and livestock was bred and raised.
At one camp, a honeymoon cottage was set aside for the exclusive use of
newlyweds; at another, 662 babies were born while 221 adults spent their
last day on earth behind the wires.
These interned citizens represented a broad spectrum of the Japanese community
in America at the time including Issei, the elders who arrived in the
early 1900s, the Nisei, the second generation born in America, and the
Kibei, also second generation born here but educated in Japan. The melange
of individuals and administrators in the camps, coupled with the social,
political and psychological dissonances of the relocation conditions,
engendered numerous responses in their combined efforts to construct community
from chaos. An anonymous poem circulated at the Poston camp, entitled
That Damned Fence, illustrates
the despair felt by the evacuees.