19th Century

1805. Aaron Arrowsmith & Samuel Lewis

1805. Aaron Arrowsmith & Samuel Lewis. Spanish Dominions in North America: From Various Authorities. Boston, 1804. Map 21 x 25 cm. Scale ca. 1:16,500,000. In Arrowsmith and Lewis, A New and Elegant General Atlas. Comprising All the New Discoveries, to the Present Time; Containing Sixty-Three Maps, Drawn by Arrowsmith and Lewis. Also on title page appears the following: "Intended to accompany the new improved edition of Morse's Geography, but equally well calculated to be used with any former edition, with his gazetteer, or any other geographical work". Boston, Thomas & Andrews, 1805. 27 cm. Map number 57. [G1015 A7 1805]. 971X800 | 728X600

This is the oldest American produced map in the exhibit. In the far West appears Quivera (sic), in what is in truth the Great Basin, while the Puerto S. Francisco is carefully placed and named, together with the Spanish missions then rising along the California coast. The basin of the Colorado River is not well shown, and none of Frs. Garces and Escalante's discoveries appear. It is easy to assume that the results of the Spanish explorations in the Southwest were not yet available to the Americans. This and the other maps in the atlas dramatize both the paucity of reliable geographic information available at the time, and the many erroneous assumptions concerning the western country with which the infamous Lewis and Clark expedition had to contend.

Arrowsmith (1750-1833) was an English cartographer, engraver and publisher and Hydrographer to His Majesty. Lewis (b. ca.1754) was an American geographer and taught drawing and writing. Shortly after the turn of the century, Lewis and Arrowsmith formed a partnership and the 1804 edition of this atlas was their first product. The 1805 printing was prepared to accompany Jedidiah Morse's American Geography and is unrevised from the 1804 edition.


1811. John Pinkerton

1811. John Pinkerton. Spanish Dominions in North America: Northern Part. Drawn Under the Direction of Mr. Pinkerton by L. Herbert...Neele Sculpt. 352 Strand. London, 1811. Colored map 51 x 70 cm. Scale ca. 1:4,500,000. From John Pinkerton, A Modern Atlas, London, T. Cadell & W. Davis and Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, 1815. Map number 43. [G3301 S1 1811 P6]. 1082X766 | 848X600

Tucson is now closer to its modern spelling--on this handsome engraved map it is labeled "Tubson". Although this map is much larger in scale and published 6 years later than Arrowsmith and Lewis', it still is lacking modern features in the Southwest. The Santa Cruz River is not even depicted. However, the Verde River is correctly named and delineated.

Pinkerton (1758-1826) was a geographer and publisher in Edinburgh and is noted for a number of geography books and atlases.


1820. AR Frém

1820. AR Frém. Map of the United States of North America, also including Territories in the Mississippi Sea to the Great Ocean, Canada, and a part of New Spain. Paris, Author Street Fosses St. Jacques, 1820. Colored map 53 x 80 cm. Scale ca. 1: 7,300,000. This map was taken from the Arrowsmith Map, Lewis and Clarke Captains' Travels, the Baron of Humboldt's Map, and the Limits were drawn from the map. of Mellish published in Philadelphia in 1816 ". [G3701 S1 1820 F7]. 1195X800 | 896X600

Mellish published in Philadelphia in 1816. "[G3701 S1 1820 F7] This attractive map is an example of a group of maps of this period of time, which is much more important than any other country in the world. of legendary rivers such as "RS Buenaventura" and "R. St. Felipe. "Tucson is still spelled" Tubson. " 

Frémin was a geographer and publisher in Paris and attached to the General Depot of War.


1822. James Finlayson

1822. James Finlayson. Geographical, Statistical and Historical Map of Mexico. Below the title appears the following: "Mexico and internal provinces. Prepared from Humboldts map & other documents by J. Finlayson. Engraved by Young & Delleker". Philadelphia. Colored map 42 x 39 cm. on sheet 45 x 56 cm. Scale ca. 1: 7,000,000. From Carey & Lea's Complete Historical, Chronological and Geographical American Atlas, Philadelphia, H. C. Carey & I. Lea, 1822. Map number 38. [G4410 1822 F5]. 751X800 | 563X600

Finlayson still shows some of the fictitious geographic features in the Great Basin. The Santa Cruz River of southern Arizona is still not shown and Tucson is still spelled "Tubson". American cartographers of this time apparently still did not have access to the discoveries of southwestern explorers.

Finlayson was a cartographer for the publishers Henry C. Carey and Isaac Lea of Philadelphia.


1825. Adrien H. Brué

1825. Adrien H. Brué. Carte Générale des Etats-Unis Mexicains et des Provinces-Unies de l'Amérique Centrale. Paris. Colored map 51 x 37 cm. Scale ca. 1:9,400,000. From his Atlas Universel de Géographie, Paris, 1830. [G1019 B863 1823]. 575X800 | 431X600

A great milestone for the Southwest has now happened--Mexico became independent from Spain in 1822; Brué's map is one of the earliest to reflect this change. It is also notable in being the first published map to name the Sacramento River of central California. For the Southwest there is no progress shown over earlier maps. Note that Tucson is spelled "Tubso".

Brué (1786-1832) was a publisher in Paris and Geographe du Roy and Geographe de Son Altesse Royale Monsieur Conte d'Artois.


1827. Philippe Marie Guillaume Vandermaelen

1827. Philippe Marie Guillaume Vandermaelen. Amer. Sep.: Partie de la Vieille California. Colored map 47 x 56 cm. Scale ca. 1:1,100,000. From his Atlas Universel de Geographie..., Lith. par H. Ode. Bruxelles, 1827. Map number 53. [G3301 S1 1827 V2] 897X800 | 673X600

This is the first atlas on a uniform scale and the earliest map published at such a large scale for this region. Unfortunately, Vandermaelen had no new information to fill in all the extra space he created; his tremendous map is more of a curiosity than a contribution. Tucson is still spelled "Tubson". Note the wagon road heading south from Tucson through Tubac and Tumacacori.

Vandermaelen (1795-1869) was a Belgian cartographer and publisher noted for at least six published atlases.


1834. Henry Schenck Tanner

1834. Henry Schenck Tanner. Mexico & Guatemala. Engraved by J. Knight. Philadelphia, 1834. Colored map 29 x 36 cm. Scale ca. 1:11,700,000. From H. S. Tanner, A New Universal Atlas..., Philadelphia, H.S. Tanner, 1836. Map number 30. [G4410 1834 T3]. 1015X800 | 761X600

The two decades between 1820 and 1840 have been called the "Golden Age of American Cartography". During these years commercial map publishing, based upon copper-plate engraving, reached its zenith. A principal contributor to the golden age and one of the most productive and successful cartographic publishers of the period was Henry Schenck Tanner. However, his "Mexico & Guatemala" sheet is remarkable for not showing any new data for the West and Southwest; in fact he still shows some of the fictitious features in the Great Basin. The Santa Cruz River is still not depicted and Tucson is still "Tubson". Other maps in the atlas are more notable; for example, his "North America" sheet is the first published map to show the discoveries made by the explorer and mountain man Jedediah Smith.

Tanner (1786-1858) was a draughtsman, engraver and publisher with addresses in Philadelphia and New York City.


1846. Henry Schenck Tanner.

1846. Henry Schenck Tanner. A Map of the United States of Mexico as Organized and Defined by the Several Acts of the Congress of that Republic, Constructed from a Great Variety of Printed and Manuscript Documents by H.S. Tanner. 3d ed. Philadelphia, Tanner, 1846. Colored map 58 x 75 cm. Scale ca. 1:5,500,000. [G4410 1846 T16]. 1022X800 | 767X600

Tanner used John C. Fremont's map of 1845 for features of the upper Great Basin, however, for the region south he had no data. For Arizona and Sonora the map is a throwback to the cartography of many years earlier. Tucson is again spelled "Tubson". The region between the Galiuro and Pinaleno Mountains is termed "Valle de la florida". Curiously, the Casa Grande Hohokam ruin is labeled "Ruins of the 2nd houses of the Aztecs"! It is interesting to note that the southern boundary of Upper California runs southwesterly from the mouth of the Gila River to a point on the coast near Pt. Mondrains. It has been speculated that if map makers that copied Tanner's maps had used the same boundary configuration, today the United States might own more of Baja California.

Tanner's maps of Mexico have received notoriety due to their association with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. There are five editions of Tanner's Mexico map and several of the earlier editions were copied-- apparently plagiarized--by the map publishers White, Gallaher and White of New York. Then, J. Disturnell of New York copied White's map. Disturnell's 1847 edition of the map of Mexico was attached to the official copies of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.


1848. John Rapkin

1848. John Rapkin. Mexico, California and Texas. Below the title is the following: "The Illustrations by H. Warren & engraved by J. Rogers. The map drawn & engraved by J. Rapkin." London, J. & F. Tallis, 1848?. Colored map 25 x 33 cm. Scale ca. 1:14,400,000. From Tallis's Illustrated Atlas and Modern History of the World, London, New York, J. & F. Tallis, 1848?. [G4410 1847 R2]. 1035x800 | 776X600

Another milestone in Southwestern history, in 1848 the United States acquired much of its southwestern territory from Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Tallis attempted to update a presumably older engraved map by outlining the ceded territory with a green boundary line. For the Arizona-Sonora region there is no improvement in cartography. Tucson is back to being spelled "Toyson". The appearance of "Pimería Alta" on the map is apparently the latest use of the name Pimería on a published map.

Rapkin drew and engraved maps for John Tallis, a London publisher.


1854. Adam and Charles Black, publishers

1854. Adam and Charles Black, publishers. Mexico, California & Texas. Engraved by S. Hall. Edinburgh, A.& C. Black, [1854?]. Colored map 26 x 38 cm. Scale ca. 1:12,000,000. From their General Atlas of the World, 1854?, plate 49. [G4410 1854 B5]. 1135x800 | 866X600

Black's colorful little map shows the political configuration of the Southwest just prior to the next great milestone: the acquisition by the United States from Mexico in 1854--through the Gadsden Purchase--the portion of today's southern Arizona south of the Gila River. From 1850 to 1863 all the land in the United States between California and Texas was called the Territory of New Mexico and in 1863 the Territory of Arizona was created. The Arizona-Sonora region of Black's map is based on old cartography. The Spanish and Mexicans still had not given Americans and other Europeans access to their more accurate maps.