Heart of the Southwest: A Selective Bibliography of Novels, Stories and Tales Laid in Arizona and New Mexico & Adjacent Lands 

by Lawrence Clark Powell

Originally published in 1959 by Dawson's Book Shop; printed by Saul & Lillian Marks at 
The Plantin Press, Los Angeles

[return to Preface and Title Index]


1. ANDY ADAMS (1859-1935)
The Log of a Cowboy; A Narrative of the Old Trail Days
illustrated by E. Boyd Smith
Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1903. 387 pp.
"If all other books on trail driving were destroyed, a reader could still get a just and authentic conception of trail men, trail work, range cattle, cow horses, and the cow country in general from The Log of a Cowboy. It is a novel without a plot, a woman, character development, or sustained dramatic incidents; yet it is the classic of the occupation. It is a simple, straightaway narrative that takes a trail herd from the Rio Grande to the Canadian line, the hands talking as naturally as cows chew cuds, every page illuminated by an easy intimacy with life." -- J. FRANK DOBIE

illustrated by Paul Laune
Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co. [1952] 220 pp.
Romantic stories of the Texas-Chihuahua border country, permeated with the acrid flavor of flowers, sweat, and frijoles. Poet, polo player and translator from the Romance languages, Allen is one of the most sensitive and nostalgic of all the evokers of the Southwest.

Home Town
New York, Harper & Brothers [1950], 310 pp.
A funny and pointed satire on New York publishing techniques. Hathaway House promotes a first novel by a young reporter in Copper City, Arizona -- a transparent disguise for the now abandoned smelter town of Jerome.

4. FRANK G. APPLEGATE (1882-1931)
Indian Stories from the Pueblos
foreword by Witter Bynner; illustrations from original Pueblo Indian paintings
Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1929. 178 pp.
"Not only is he a familiar in the Tewa villages around his home town, Santa Fé, but months at a time he has lived in Hopi villages, lived the Hopi life, felt Hopi feelings, studied and revived Hopi art among the native pottery-makers, painted Hopi persons and ceremonies, and listened meantime to such stories as he has caught for us in this volume. He has caught them as patiently, as gently, as surely, as I have seen an Indian pick up in gifted hands a live wood-pecker from a tree-trunk or a live trout from a stream." -- WITTER BYNNER

Native Tales of New Mexico
introduction by Mary Austin; with illustrations in color by the author
Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Co. [1932] 263 pp.
"The salient characteristic of all of them is that they could not have happened anywhere else, which is the unassailable hallmark of regionalism in literature." -- MARY AUSTIN

6. LAURA ADAMS ARMER (1874 - )
Waterless Mountain
illustrated by Sidney Armer and Laura Adams Armer
New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1931. 212 pp.
Although written originally for young people this novel of a Navajo boy who is called to be a medicine man will hold readers of all ages for its insight and power. A foreword by Oliver La Farge is a tribute to Mrs. Armer, which concludes, "Many readers will question the high religious ideas, the constant talk of beauty, the mysticism, that she ascribes to Younger Brother and his priestly Uncle; one can only say that, contrary to the general idea, many Indians are so."

Dark Circle of Branches
illustrated by Sidney Armer
New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1933. 212 pp.
Following the success of
Waterless Mountain, Mrs. Armer wrote this moving story of the "Long Walk" in 1862, when the Navajos were herded into the Canyon de Chelly by Kit Carson, then transported into four years of exile before they were assigned to their present reservation in northern Arizona and New Mexico.

Blood Brother
New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce [1947] 558 pp.
Based on the friendship between the Chiricahua Apache Cochise and the American scout Tom Jeffords, and how that blood bond brought a lasting peace to Arizona Territory. The book's gallery of real characters is marred somewhat by the introduction of an imaginary love story between Jeffords and an Apache girl. Overly long for some tastes, but the real background of history and landscape and its subtle emphasis on the power of friendship to change the world, make this a distinguished novel of the region.

The Time of the Gringo
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1953. 613 pp.
This novel of the efforts of Manuel Armijo, last of the Mexican governors, to hold off the inevitable Anglo tide is, like Blood Brother, the product of a vigorous mind immersed in the social and political tides of its time. Laid for the most part around Santa Fé and the Rio Arriba, the book abounds in Hollywoodian situations, but for all that illustrates the ancient dictum that all tyrants carry within them the elements of their own destruction.

10. MARY AUSTIN (1868-1934)
One-Smoke Stories
Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1934. [295 pp.]
Arizona and New Mexico folk-tales, none longer than the time it takes to smoke a ceremonial corn-husk cigarette.

Starry Adventure
Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931. [421 pp.]
Flashes of poetic description of her beloved upper Rio Grande country light up this talk-heavy novel about modern characters who fail to come alive.

12-13. ADOLPH F. BANDELIER (1840-1914)
The Delight Makers
New York, Dodd, Mead & Co. [1890] 490 pp.
---- with an introduction by Charles F. Lummis [and a foreword by Frederick W. Hodge]
Same publisher. 2nd ed. [1916] 490 pp.
This first of a long line of Southwest Indian documentary novels has never been surpassed in its faithfulness to the facts of Pueblo Indian culture and the New Mexican landscape of the Rito de los Frijoles, the region northwest of Santa Fé now the Bandelier National Monument. The contributions to the second edition by Hodge and Lummis are tributes to the pioneer work of him who remains one of the greatest of Southwestern archaeologists and ethnologists. It is illustrated from photographs by Lummis and F. C. Hicks. New editions of The Delight Makers are still being issued by the publisher from the original plates.

14. WILL C. BARNES (1858 - 1936)
Tales From the X-Bar Horse Camp; The Blue Roan "Outlaw" and Other Stories
Chicago, The Breeders' Gazette, 1920. 217 pp.
Good stories of ranching, mining, archaeology, Indians and bandits in Arizona, by the author of the standard Arizona Place Names. Eighteen photographic illustrations add to the book's authenticity.

15. ROBERT AMES BENNET (1870 - )
Bloom of Cactus
with a frontispiece by Ralph Pallen Coleman
Garden City, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1920. 248 pp.
Melodramatic mélange of lost mines, Gila monsters, rattlesnakes, and Apaches in recognizable southern Arizona setting.

16. ROBERT BRIGHT (1902 - )
The Life and Death of Little Jo
decorations by the author
Garden City, Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1944. 216 pp.
The time is today, the setting a village of northern New Mexico, the people the Mexican-Americans, the story a simple one of family and communal relationships, pitched in low and humorous key. The author's line drawings add to the book's charm.

17. W.R. BURNETT (1899 - )
Adobe Walls: A Novel of the Last Apache Uprising
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1953. 279 pp.
An old story expertly retold.

18. DAVID BURNHAM (1907 - )
Winter in the Sun
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937. 300 pp.
The setting is a guest ranch on the border south of Tucson, and the author manages to convey the superficiality of the "foreigners" in search of health and amusement. Quail-hunting, horse-racing, picnicking to the landmark peak Baboquivari, the condition of desert roads after rain, and cloud formations over the Papago country -- these hold the interest more than the characters' banal talk.

19. WALTER NOBLE BURNS (1872 - 1932)
The Saga of Billy the Kid
Garden City, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926. 322 pp.
Novelized account of the most notorious of southwestern bad men, the murderous little cowboy-gone-bad named William H. Bonney, born at New York in 1859 and died by Sheriff Pat Garrett's bullet at Fort Sumner, New Mexico in 1881.

Tombstone: An Iliad of the Southwest
Garden City, Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927. 388 pp.
The Arizona silver boom-town, and its famous six-shooter sheriff Wyatt Earp, are the subjects of this novelized frontier history, based freely on Arizona newspapers of the 1880's.

21. WILLA CATHER (1875 - 1947)
Death Comes for the Archbishop
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1927. 303 pp.
The statue of Archbishop Lamy in front of the cathedral in Santa Fé inspired this classic evocation of the religious spirit which sought to civilize the primitive Southwest. It is distinguished by economy of language and understatement of emotion -- intentions which the author explained in an essay in The Commonweal.

22. WILL LEVINGTON COMFORT (1878 - 1932)
New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. [1931] 274 pp.
Mangus Colorado, the great Mimbreño chieftain, is the hero of this lean and sinewy book, the climax to Comfort's prolific writing career. "It remains for me," said J. Frank Dobie, "the most moving and incisive piece of writing on Indians of the Southwest that I have found."

23. DANE COOLIDGE (1873 - 1940)
Silver Hat
New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1934. 255 pp.
The inevitable satire on Indian Westerns, Medicine Men, Snake Dances, Descents of the Colorado and the rest of frontier lore and love, featuring Lady Grace Benedict, known as Slender Woman, Milton Buckmaster, an old Scout who passes as the Navajo called Silver Hat, and the villain of the piece, a young Hopi chieftain named Harold Chasing Butterflies, who went away to the white man's school and came back with hatred in his heart.

24. EDWIN CORLE (1906 - )
Mojave; A Book of Stories
New York, Liveright Publishing Corp., [1934] 272 pp.
Good stories gleaned by the author in that "mystic mid country" between the San Bernardinos and the Rio Colorado.

Fig Tree John
New York, Liveright Publishing Corp., [1935] 318 pp.
Corle has never surpassed the achievement of this first of his novels, which has a legendary Apache character, in a Salton Sea locale, broken and embittered by the encroaching whites. The book's genesis is told in a foreword by L. C. Powell to a new edition published in 1955 by the Ward Ritchie Press in Los Angeles.

People on the Earth
New York, Random House [1937], 401 pp.
A powerful novel of the tragic waste of trying to Americanize the Navajo, which ranks with Fig Tree John as Corle's major achievement and with La Farge's work as the best of the novels about the Navajo.

Burro Alley
New York, Random House [1938], 279 pp.
A picture of Santa Fé as a tourist town, the action centering in the pleasure establishments of the street which gives the book its title. Corle's later novelette In Winter Light (1949) treats similarly of the whites attracted to a Navajo trading post.

28. KYLE CRICHTON (1896 - )
The Proud People, A Novel
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1944. 368 pp.
An unusual novel of social manners, laid in Albuquerque and environs in 1941, told mainly in conversation, of the problems of the old and young Mexican-Americans in the university and professional upper crust. The author, who also wrote left-wing criticism under the pseudonym Robert Forsythe, sketches the setting with a light, sure touch.

29. J. FRANK DOBIE (1888 - )
Apache Gold and Yaqui Silver
illustrated by Tom Lea
Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1939. 366 pp.
Mostly a narrative of characters and experiences met during trips through the mountains of New Mexico, trailing down the story of the Lost Adams Diggings, illuminated by the alchemical magic of Dobie's feeling for places and people of the Southwest.

Coronado's Children; Tales of Lost Mines and Buried Treasures of the Southwest
illustrated by Ben Carlton Mead
Dallas, The Southwest Press [1930]. 367 pp.
Classic work on the subject.

31. R. L. DUFFUS (1888 - )
New York, Covici, Friede [1935], 313 pp.
Historical novel about a caravan on the Santa Fé trail in 1846, on the eve of the Mexican War, intrigue over arms, the beauteous Doña Mercedes, and Martin Collins, an ardent Yankee greenhorn. The title refers to the desert crossing in New Mexico.

Pillars of Gold
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1941. 403 pp.
Romantic documented novel of the lower Rio Colorado in the 1860's, when a gold strike and the struggle between Unionists and Secessionists punctuate the efforts of a San Francisco group to develop a steamship service from the Gulf to the Grand Canyon.

33. HARVEY FERGUSSON (1890 - )
Followers of the Sun, A Trilogy of the Santa Fé Trail: Wolf Song, In Those Days, The Blood of the Conquerors
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1936. [756 pp.]
In an introduction written especially for this volume, Fergusson tells of his birth in Albuquerque, his boyhood and youth as a hunter and trapper, and then of his romantic impulse to recreate the past of his pioneer forebears. "Although they were not conceived or written as a trilogy the three novels belong together, and I believe they have more interest and significance taken together than any of them has alone. They all deal with the same region and spring from the same impulse. Taken together, they tell the story of a great migration from the time when lone hunters invaded a wilderness until the frontier had been pushed into the ocean and the westward flow of human energy had come nearly to a stop. They also cover a hundred years in the history of the racial and cultural border where the Spanish-America of the South meets the Northern Anglo-America in a contact that is still a vital thing."

Wolf Song
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1927. 206 pp.
"I had occasion last night to look for something in Harvey Fergusson's Wolf Song, which I rate above Guthrie's The Big Sky, as a novel on the mountain men. It is easily among the best half dozen novels on the West, in my estimation. Willa Cather, Conrad Richter, nor anyone else has equalled Fergusson in the swiftness, economy, and prose rhythm of Chapter One in Wolf Song." -- J. FRANK DOBIE

In Those Days: An Impression of Change
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1929. 267 pp.
Of this novel of the economic development of the Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, based in part on the career of his grandfather, Fergusson wrote, "By the time I came to write [it] my mood and intention had changed. I was still enamored of a swift and rhythmical style. I wanted intensity rather than bulk. I aspired to a sort of narrative poetry. But it was no longer the heroism of adventure that engrossed me. I wanted now to show the long curve of a human destiny through fifty years of spectacular and unprecedented change. ... Time and Change are the mighty characters in this story."

The Blood of the Conquerors
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1921. 265 pp.
"The Blood of the Conquerors was written first, but it belongs last, not only in chronological sequence but in the progression of the mood. For I was writing, in this book, not of times I had read about and dreamed about, but of times I had lived. The town of the story is the Albuquerque of the early nineteen hundreds in which I was a boy. It is the typical Southwestern town of the end of the frontier period, when all the booms were over and all the battles fought, where the free wealth of the wilderness all had been squandered or hoarded and men had to learn the difficult and cunning technique of taking things away from each other without the aid of firearms."

Grant of Kingdom, A Novel
New York, William Morrow, 1950. 311 pp.
The fabled Maxwell Land Grant in northern New Mexico is the background for this story of the civilizing effect of baronial life and women on the storied mountain men and their successors. The high country with its snowy peaks and hidden valleys, the great old haciendas with their stately mores, the curious character of a man both savage and tamed, combine realistically herein as perhaps only Fergusson, with his roots deep in New Mexico's soil, can do.

The poetry of Wolf Song has become more rich in texture, the vision of life wiser and more complex.

The Conquest of Don Pedro
New York, William Morrow, 1954. 250 pp.
The "conquest" is of an old Spanish settlement on the Rio Grande south of Albuquerque, in the years following the Civil War, by Leo Mendes, a Jewish peddler from New York who subsequently by non-violent means becomes a powerful figure in a violent frontier society. Fergusson's treatment of sex is frank and true and tender.

As Grant of Kingdom is a maturer version of Wolf Song, so is Don Pedro a riper treatment of the themes of In Those Days.

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The Journey of the Flame
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1933. [295 pp.]
This purports to be an account of one year in the life of Señor Don Juan Obrigón (1798-1902) known from his red hair (he was half Irish, his surname a corruption of O'Brien) as Juan Colorado and to the Indians as the Flame, Englished by Walter de Steiguer from Fierro Blanco's original Spanish. Actually written in English by Walter Nordhoff (1858-1937), it is replete with lore of the land and has vitality.

40. O'KANE FOSTER (1898 - )
In The Night Did I Sing
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1942. [324 pp.]
A loving and lyrical pastoral novel of the Mexican American Taos Valley village called Sangre de Cristo, full of a deep brooding sympathy for the brown people and a distaste for the restless road-building Anglos, typified by a crew of Texas surveyors.

41. CLAUD GARNER (1891 - )
Wetback, A Novel
New York, Coward-McCann [1947]. [216 pp.]
An earnest novel of the Texas-Mexico border along the Rio Grande, full of sympathy for the illegal Mexican farm laborers who give the book its title. The hero is a Tarascan Indian peon who triumphs in his determination to become a legal U. S. citizen. Realistic in the beginning and absurdly Pollyanna-ish in the end.

42. FRANCES GILLMOR (1903 - )
Fruit Out of Rock
New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce [1940], 269 pp.
The setting is the cultivated canyon of the Aravaipa east of Tucson where peach growers are threatened by overgrazing goats upstream. The love story is along the same lines of conflict. Miss Gillmor's style is austere and biblical.

New York, Minton, Balch and Co., 1930. 218 pp.
The author, who teaches literature and folklore at the University of Arizona, is a lifelong student of Navajo ceremonials. The hero of her story is a leader of healing chants who rises and falls in the People's favor, and whose sheepherding wife loves him as a man even when she no longer believes in him as a prophet.

44. ZANE GREY (1872-1939)
The Heritage of the Desert, A Novel
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1910. 297 pp.
Up in Coconino County the lands north of the Grand Canyon are known as the Arizona Strip. Bordering on Utah this beautiful cedar-wooded Mormon country is the setting of this first of Zane Grey's "Big Four," the novels on which he built world-wide fame and fortune. Admittedly the plot is sensational, the characters stereotypes, and the Grey morals either black or white, yet he wrote a story people liked to read, and his feeling for this part of the Southwest was deep and true.

Riders of the Purple Sage, A Novel
Illustrated by Douglas Duer
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1912. 334 pp.
Southern Utah is the setting of this probably most popular and best loved of all westerns, and the Mormons are the villains. The character of the deadly yet noble gunman Lassiter approaches the epic folk hero in its powerful simplification -- a character personified by the movie actor William S. Hart, slit-eyed, steel-muscled, and claw-fingered on the draw. The final scene when Lassiter, Jane, and Fay escape into the high hidden valley and Lassiter closes the narrow pass by rolling the balancing rock, is perhaps the finest moment in all western fiction.

The Light of Western Stars, A Romance
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1914. 388 pp.
The excessively melodramatic plot -- eastern society girl, virile cowboy, crooked sheriff, lustful guerilla, wild ride (in a newfangled motorcar) across the border to halt the hero's execution -- reads today almost like a satire on this kind of novel. The setting is Southwestern New Mexico into Arizona and Sonora, and although it is accurately observed, Grey's feeling for this landscape lacks the initial passion he felt for the Coconino plateau and the Arizona Strip.

The Rainbow Trail, A Romance
New York, Harper & Brothers [1915], 372 pp.
For this sequel to Riders of the Purple Sage Grey returned to the Navajo-Mormon country on the Arizona Utah border, and takes his characters over the Rainbow Bridge and down the Grand Canyon.

To the Last Man A Novel
Illustrated by Frank Spradling
New York, Harper & Brothers [1922], 310 pp.
This sentimental romance is added to the "Big Four" because of its subject -- the famous Graham-Tewksbury feud between Arizona cattlemen and sheepmen. As usual Grey's passion for setting -- the Tonto Basin -- far exceeded his ability to lend his characters the dimensions of real life. His foreword to this novel gives Grey's formula for western fiction: real setting, much violence, plus romantic love interest.

49. ERNEST HAYCOX (1899 - 1950)
Border Trumpet
Boston, Little, Brown & Co., [1939] 306 pp.
Haycox was perhaps the master of the many-writered school of historical westerns, being an accurate researcher, creator of living characters, and a good story-teller. This novel of the Apache war is notable for its picture of U. S. Army life on the Arizona frontier.

The Seven Cities of Gold
New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce [1946], 243 pp.
A rousing romance told in glittering style of the Coronado expedition of 1540 to find the Golden Cities of Cíbola -- the Zuni pueblos of New Mexico -- with an invented love story wedded warmly to the historical background.

51. PAUL HORGAN (1903 - )
Far from Cíbola
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1938. [163 pp.]
Vignettes of ranching folk in central New Mexico during the Depression.

The Habit of Empire
Santa Fé, New Mexico, The Rydal Press [1938], 114 pp.
A narrative of the conquest of New Mexico by Juan de Oñate in 1604, of his death at Acoma and the subsequent destruction of the Pueblo. Illustrated from lithographs by the New Mexican artist, Peter Hurd of San Patricio. There is a photo-offset reprint, New York, Harper & Brothers [1939].

No Quarter Given
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1935. 586 pp.
A composer-pianist from the Southwest is the hero of this ample novel, the setting of which, alternating between New Mexico and New York, contains such varieties as a recognizable portrait of Toscanini and a good description of an Indian ceremonial dance at the pueblo of Santo Domingo.

The Return of the Weed
lithographs by Peter Hurd
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1936. 97 pp.
Seven deserted buildings mostly in southern New Mexico, from a Mission of the 1680'S to a modern filling station, stimulate the author to imagine what led to their abandonment. The stories are simple and excellent.

55. T. C. HOYT
Rimrock: A Story of the West
Boston, The Four Seas Co. [1923] 319 pp.
Characters remain wooden in this earnest effort to novelize the details of life on a cattle ranch in northern Arizona near the Utah border.

56. DOROTHY B. HUGHES (1904 - )
Ride the Pink Horse
New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce [1946], 248 pp.
A tough mystery novel, set in Santa Fé at Fiesta time. The pink horse is a part of Tio Vivo, the little merry-go-round which is set up in the old Plaza.

57. THOMAS A. JANVIER (1849 - 1913)
Santa Fé's Partner; Being Some Memorials of Events in a New Mexican Track-end Town
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1907. [237 pp.]
Tales of a town on the Rio Grande called Palomitas in territorial times, which are another example of Bret Harte's influence on frontier fiction.

58. CORNELIA JESSEY (1910 - )
The Treasures of Darkness
New York, Noonday Press, 1953. 310 pp.
A psychological study of paternal incest and matricide, all transpiring in retrospect as the heroine returns by train from California via Ash Fork to her girlhood home in Prescott (called Deniza).

New York, Harper &Brothers, 1939. 278 pp.
Phoebe Titus is the hard-boiled heroine of this melodramatic story of Tucson in the 1860's, when the forces of commerce and virtue were preparing savage Arizona for statehood.

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60. HENRY HERBERT KNIBBS (1874 - 1945)
Sundown Slim
with illustrations by Anton Fischer
Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915. 356 pp.
Christened Washington Hicks, the homely six-foot-four hobo-cook-cowboy-philosopher preferred to be called Sundown Slim. As a frontier character he anticipates Will Rogers in this good yarn of humor, virtue rewarded, and cattle-sheep strife in a central Arizona setting.

61. OLIVER LA FARGE (1901 - )
Laughing Boy
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929. 302 pp.
Laughing Boy and Slim Girl may not be typical Navajos, as some critics have complained, but their tragic love story and the northern Arizona setting are fused in a novel of sensitive beauty and powerful impact.

The Enemy Gods
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937. 325 pp.
A searching novel of Navajo versus White values in the education of an Indian, written with skill in narrative and sensual feeling for landscape.

All the Young Men, Stories
Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1935. 272 pp.
Mostly about the impact of the Whites on the Navajos and the Jicarilla Apaches.

64. RUTH LAUGHLIN (1889 - )
The Wind Leaves No Shadow
New York, Whittlesey House [1948], 321 pp.
Historical novel of the upper Rio Grande Valley from 1821 to 1852, the heroine a red-headed Spanish-Mexican gambling girl named Tules, who for a time is the mistress of Governor Armijo. An enlarged edition was published in 1951 by the Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho.

Song Before Sunrise
Garden City, Doubleday & Co., 1948. 314 pp.
An earthy yet mystical romance of a mountain man and a Spanish-Navajo girl in the time of the Santa Fé trade a century ago. The setting of Acoma, Santa Fé, Canyon de Chelly, and the remote tributaries of the Colorado is portrayed with power and beauty.

Arrows Into The Sun
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1943. 311 pp.
This sequel to Song Before Sunrise tells the fate of the son of Dennis and Najoni who belongs neither to white nor Navajo, and of the conflict between Mormons and Navajos in the Arizona-Utah country dominated by the Rio Colorado.

The Rose and the Flame
Garden City, Doubleday & Co., 1951, 309 pp.
A violent romantic story of a brief Spanish journey in New Mexico at the time of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680.

68. D. H. LAWRENCE (1885 - 1930)
St. Mawr, together with The Princess
London, Martin Secker [1925], 238 pp.
It was a strange destiny (whose agent was Mabel Dodge Luhan) that brought the great English writer to northern New Mexico in the early 1920's.This novelette and short story contain the essences of Anglo-Indian-Mexican relationships told in economical and powerful language. The American edition (Knopf) of the same year does not include The Princess.

The Woman Who Rode Away, and Other Stories
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1928. 307 pp.
In the title-story Lawrence uses a willful American woman, seeking from the Indians the meaning lost from her own life, as a human sacrifice. Although the setting is the mountains of Chihuahua, the sacrificial dances and other ceremonies are those that Lawrence observed in northern New Mexico.

70. TOM LEA (1907 - )
The Wonderful Country, A Novel
with drawings by the author
Boston, Little, Brown and Co., [1952], 307 pp.
One of the finest of all Southwest novels by a Southwesterner (Lea was born and lives in El Paso) whose power with pencil and paint is perfectly matched by his way with words. The time is mid-19th century, the setting the wind-gritty border country where Texas and New Mexico meet Sonora and Chihuahua, the characters Mexicans, Apaches, U. S. Military, and miscellaneous frontier figures, all alive and convincing -- and Martin Brady's black stallion Lágrimas, the finest western horse of them all. Collectors will want the dust-jacket for its drawings by the author.

71. ALAN LE MAY (1899 - )
Useless Cowboy
New York, Farrar & Rinehart [1943], 247 pp.
As Dane Coolidge's Silver Hat satirized Indian novels, so does this absurd and rollicking yarn poke fun at cowboy clichés.

72. ALFRED HENRY LEWIS (1857-1914)
illustrated by Frederic Remington
New York, F. A. Stokes [1897], 337 pp.
These dialect tales of a camp in the Arizona cattle and mining country owe much to Bret Harte's California stories, both in their sentimental portrayal of western character and in their method of describing the local color of a similar region. This first success was followed by Wolfville Days (1902), Wolfville Nights (1902), and Wolfville Folks (1908).

73 - 74. CHARLES F. LUMMIS (1859 - 1928)
The Enchanted Burro; Stories of New Mexico and South America
Chicago, Way and Williams, 1897. 277 pp.
---- New edition, with many new stories and illustrations
Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1912. 353 pp.
"Most of these stories are of episodes in which I had some part. Not all are 'True Stories,' but all are truthful. I hope that makes them no duller than if they had been guessed out of whole cloth and innocence." Thus the author in his preface. First literary discoverer and self-proclaimed christener of "The Southwest," Charlie Lummis has few peers in his zealous championing of the region.

First edition is illustrated from drawings by Charles Abel Corwin after photographs by the author; the enlarged edition has illustrations from the photos themselves.

The King of the Broncos, and Other Stories of New Mexico
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897. 254 pp.
Includes "My Friend Will," an autobiographical account of the author's triumph over paralysis.

A New Mexico David, and Other Stories and Sketches of the Southwest
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1891. 217 pp.
"These true pictures of the wonderful and almost unknown Southwest are part of the fruits of years of residence and study, and several hundreds of thousands of miles of travel on foot, on horseback, and by rail, through this strange land. They are not the impressions of a random tourist across its bare, brown waste, but are drawn from intimacy with its quaint people, its weird customs, and its dangers." Prefatory note.

The illustrations are from the author's photographs, among the earliest ever made of the Southwest.

77. CHARLES L. McNICHOLS (1895-)
Crazy Weather
New York, The Macmillan Co., 1944. 195 pp.
"Crazy Weather" comes to the lower Colorado River country from the Gulf of California each July in the form of oppressive heat, lightning, thunder, wind and rain, and it sends a 14-year-old white youngster called South Boy on a runaway journey up river with a Mojave Indian boy to prove their manhood as warriors. This book is a kind of Huck Finn of the Colorado in the time before the dams tamed the river; it is packed with the lore and legends of the once fierce Mojaves who thought nothing of whipping their Apache neighbor s and the lesser Paiutes, Yumas, Yavapais, Shoshones, and Cocomaricopas.

78. CURTIS MARTIN (1913-)
The Hills of Home
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1943. [186 pp.]
Sangre de Cristo is the name the author gives to the northern New Mexico town of these tales. It is a volume similar to Steinbeck's early Pastures of Heaven, a kind of prose Spoon River Anthology, in which the landscape, weather, and folklore of this piñon country are simply and lovingly set forth.

79. HONORÉ WILLSIE MORROW (1880 - 1940)
The Enchanted Canyon, A Novel of the Grand Canyon and the Arizona Desert
New York. Frederick A. Stokes [1921], 346 pp.
An absurdly romantic story, with just enough feeling for landscape and interest in reclamation to give it a marginal position among Southwest novels.

80. JOHN LOUW NELSON (1895 - )
Rhythm for Rain
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937. [272 pp.]
A documentary novel, with photographic illustrations and a glossary, of the Hopi Indian ceremonials of northern Arizona.

81. GUY NUNN (1915 - )
White Shadows
New York, Reynal & Hitchcock, [1947] 246 pp.
Sociological story of a Jaliscan peon who becomes an exploited laborer, first on the slag heap of an El Paso smelter, then as a farmhand and roustabout in Indio and Los Angeles, written with insight, sympathy, and gentle indignation.

82. JACK O'CONNOR (1902 - )
Boom Town, A Novel of the Southwestern Silver Boom
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1938. 331 pp.
Globe, Arizona in the latter part of the 19th century is said to be the setting of this best of all novels about mining. O'Connor knows the occupation, the people and the land, and he writes with earthy gusto. He happens also to have written good books about hunting in the West, and this novel has some memorable descriptions of big-horn sheep.

Conquest, A Novel of the Old Southwest
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1930. 293 pp.
Jard Pendleton is the tough, Apache-killing hero of this violent novel of the development of Arizona in the 19th century, the action taking place mostly along the routes between Tucson and the Salt River Valley.

84. RAYMOND OTIS (1900 - 1938)
Fire in the Night
New York, Farrar & Rinehart [1934], 303 pp.
An unusual novel about the volunteer firemen of Santa Fé, a firebug, and the emotional and social complications of the townspeople, focussed around a big fire on the night of September 6, 1931.

Miguel of the Bright Mountain
London, Victor Gollancz, 1936. 320 pp.
Only an English publisher was found for this sensitive story of the growth of Miguel from boyhood through adolescence to young manhood, marriage and entrance into the Penitente cult. The place is northern New Mexico, the people Mexican-Americans in conflict with the Anglos, and the setting of seasonal landscape is beautifully rendered.

86. GLADYS A. REICHARD (1893 - )
Dezba, Woman of the Desert
with photographs by Lilian J. Reichard and the author
New York. J. J. Augustin [1939], 161 pp.
A documentary series of fictional episodes about the Navajo, by one of the most distinguished of contemporary ethnologists, with beautiful photographic illustrations.

87. MAYNE REID (1818 - 1883)
The White Chief, A Legend of Northern Mexico
In three volumes
London, David Bogue, 1855. 308, 305, 307 pp.
This three-decker is one of the earliest Southwest novels, by the prolific and popular writer who followed in Fenimore Cooper's footsteps. The setting is New Mexico in the time of the Pueblos, and fifty pages of explanatory notes at the end of Volume 3 reveal Captain Reid's efforts accurately to document his stories with the correct facts of geography, zoölogy, botany, Spanish terms -- all that constitutes what we call "local color." An enthusiastic estimate of Reid as the first popularizer of the West is found in the book by Charles F. Lummis, Mesa, Cañon and Pueblo.

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88. The Desire of the Moth
illustrations by H. T. Dunn
New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1916. 149 pp.

89. Once in the Saddle & Pasó Por Aquí
Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927. 258 pp.

90. West is West
illustrated by Harvey Dunn
New York, H. K. Fly Co., [1917] 304 pp.

These three volumes seem to me the best of work of Nebraska-Kansas-New Mexico-California-New York formed Gene Rhodes, the most literary and humanistic cowboy-writer of them all. His books are to the southern Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico what Harvey Fergusson's are to the north -- an essential expression of the land and its lore, wind and weather -and though his style tends to be over-literary and his plots were tailored to the Saturday Evening Post which gave him a living, the man's knowledge was first-hand and his vision noble, all of which is beautifully expounded by J. Frank Dobie in "A Salute to Gene Rhodes" in The Best Novels and Stories of Eugene Manlove Rhodes, edited by Frank V. Dearing. (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1949, 551 pp.) Another valuable posthumous volume, The Little World Waddies, collects other stories and poems, has an end paper map of the Rhodes country, illustrations by Harold Bugbee, and also contains the Dobie tribute (printed by Carl Hertzog of El Paso for William Hutchinson, 1946).

91. CONRAD RICHTER (1890 - )
Early Americana and Other Stories
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1936. 322 pp.
The plains country west of the Arkansas to Santa Fé is the setting of these stories about Indians, drought, and the coming of the railroad. The author found early newspaper files to be a rich mine, and supplemented this research by talks with old-timers and familiarity with the terrain.

The Sea of Grass
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1937. 149 pp.
The setting is a great ranch of grazing land in West Texas, encroached on by nesters, and the story is of the unyielding baronial rancher's inability to hold a high-spirited young wife, all seen through the eyes of the young nephew. Richter's work is the essential distillation of research and observation during long residence in the Southwest.

Tacey Cromwell
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1942. 208 pp.
Again Richter uses the device of a young narrator to tell the story of a frontier madame who leaves Socorro and attempts to become respectable as the wife of a gambler in Bisbee. The look and the life of the southern Arizona copper town are vividly evoked.

94. WILL H. ROBINSON (1867 - 1938)
Thirsty Earth
New York, Julian Messner [1937], 288 pp.
The drama of irrigation and reclamation development in the Salt River Valley in the 1890's. Good description of the Hopi Snake Dance at Walpi, and true to the climate and configuration of the Arizona landscape.

95. MARAH ELLIS RYAN (1860 - 1934)
The Flute of the Gods
illustrated by Edward S. Curtis
New York, F. A. Stokes Co., [1909] 338 pp.
The ritual lore of the Indian tribes of northern Arizona and New Mexico is the exotic stuff of this novel, set in the 16th century of the Conquistadores, with posed "arty" photographs for illustration.

96. V. SACKVILLE-WEST (1892 - )
Grand Canyon, A Novel
Garden City, Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1942. 304 pp.
An odd book by the English writer who uses a tourist hotel at the Canyon as center of a satirical conversation piece, with a Nazi invasion tossed in for timeliness.

97. ROSS SANTEE (1889 - )
The Bubbling Spring
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1949.300 pp.
No false romance or glamour about this earthy story of the coming to manhood of a young emigrant to the Southwest in the time of the Apache uprisings, of his work as a cowboy, marriage to a frontier girl, and their homesteading at "the bubbling spring" in New Mexico. Santee's drawings intersperse the story and heighten the reader's feeling that this is really the way it was.

New York, Cosmopolitan, 1928. 257 pp.
The setting is southern Arizona and New Mexico, and the story is written and illustrated by one of the all-time best cowboy writer-artists. According to Dobie, nowhere else can be found a better description of drouth or of rain and its greening effect on man and beast as well as on grass.

Hardrock and Silver Sage
New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951. 224 pp.
The lore of mining, trapping, and cowpunching as seen through the eyes of two boys, the sons of an itinerant intellectual miner, in the high country around Globe, Arizona. The author's illustrations are true to his text and the land it describes.

100. [DOROTHY SCARBOROUGH (1878 - 1935)]
The Wind: Anonymous
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1925. 337 pp.
A morbid story of the madness which overtakes a Virginia woman, married to a rancher on the plains of West Texas, when the persistent wind finally blows away her reason. According to Dobie, the book's realism excited the wrath of Chambers of Commerce and other Texas boosters, much as The Grapes of Wrath aroused the Associated Farmers in California.

101. JOHN L. SINCLAIR (1902 - )
In Time of Harvest
New York, The Macmillan Co., 1943. 226 pp.
The setting is Torrance County in southeastern New Mexico, the people Okie, Texie and Arkie immigrant farmers, called nesters, the crop pinto beans. Full of earthy humor and folklore.

102. DAMA MARGARET SMITH (1892 - )
Hopi Girl
with a foreword by Ray Lyman Wilbur
Stanford University Press, 1931. 273 pp.
Documentary novel of the northern Arizona tribe, pitched to a low and quiet tone.

103. JOHN STEINBECK (1902 - )
The Grapes of Wrath
New York, The Viking Press [1939], 619 pp.
The high point of Steinbeck's achievement, this powerful novel tells of Oklahoma dust-bowl fugitives to California, where the Joad family typifies the plight of the migratory farm workers in the San Joaquin Valley. Included as a Southwest novel because of the epic crossing on U. S. Highway 66.

104. RAMONA STEWART (1922 - )
Desert Town
New York, William Morrow, 1946. 248 pp.
Barstow in California's San Bernardino County, a Santa Fé shop town and ranching center, is said to be the original of "Desert Town." The story is of "protected vice" and gives insight into the workings of the Sheriff's Office.

105. IDAH MEACHAM STROBRIDGE (1855 - 1932)
The Loom of the Desert
Los Angeles [Artemesia Bindery], 1907. 141 pp.
Dramatic vignettes of desert lore by the author-printer-binder who was the first to "glamorize" the Nevada desert. Illustrations are by Maynard Dixon. This volume and the author's In Miner's Mirage-Land (1904) and The Land of Purple Shadows (1909) represent the beginnings of fine book production in Los Angeles, in which content, format, and illustrations join harmoniously.

106. RICHARD A. SUMMERS (1906 - )
Dark Madonna
Caldwell, Caxton Printers, 1937. 294 pp.
Tucson's "Little Mexico" quarter is the setting of this good novel about a Mexican family in the Depression. It reveals the author's deep sympathy and knowledge of Mexican-Indian behavior, their folklore and superstitions, and his true feeling for the weather and landscape of Tucson.

The Devil's Highway
New York, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1937. 299 pp.
Based faithfully on the life of Padre Kino, the great Jesuit explorer and missionary of what is now Sonora and Arizona. End paper maps and lithographic illustrations by Nils Hogner increase the book's interest.

108. ROSEMARY TAYLOR (1899 - )
Chicken Every Sunday; My Life with Mother's Boarders
Illustrated by Donald McKay
New York, Whittlesey House [1943], 307 pp.
A lively account of folksy people in a Tucson boarding-house.

Ridin' the Rainbow; Father's Life in Tucson
Illustrations by Donald McKay
New York, Whittlesey House [1944], 271 pp.
A novelized biography of Father, a pioneer character, filled with the folklore of Southern Arizona.

110. RUTH M. UNDERHILL (1884 - )
Hawk Over Whirlpools
New York, J. J. Augustin [1940], 255 pp.
Sympathetic novel about the impact of government policies on a Navajo village during the Depression, written by a creative anthropologist.

111. FRANK WATERS (1902 - )
The Man Who Killed the Deer
New York, Farrar and Rinehart [1942], 311 pp.
The setting for this study of "crime and punishment" is an Indian pueblo in northern New Mexico. Includes vivid details of ceremonials of the peyote cult, told with sympathy from the Indian point of view.

Waters' two earlier novels Below Grass Roots (1937) and The Dust Within the Rock (1940) contain memorable episodes set in the border country of New Mexico and Colorado, but are mostly mining stories of the Cripple Creek Country, marked by a dithyrambic quality reminiscent of Thomas Wolfe's North Carolina novels.

People of the Valley
New York, Farrar & Rinehart [1941], 309 pp.
Earthy story of the rise of Maria the goat-girl, who becomes Doña Maria del Valle, the rich witchcrafty ruler of a native community in northern New Mexico, and of her resistance to an Anglo-sponsored government dam, told with sensuous insight into the mysteries of Sex and Death.

113. JACK WEADOCK (1899 - )
Dust of the Desert, Plain Tales of the Desert and the Border
Illustrated by Jack Van Ryder
New York, D. Appleton-Century Co., 1936. 306 pp.
Simply told folk-tales of Indian and White characters of southern Arizona and New Mexico. A foreword by George H. Doran gives some facts about the author and the illustrator.

114. PAUL I. WELLMAN (1898 - )
Bronco Apache, A Novel
New York, The Macmillan Co., 1936. 303 pp.
This is the fictional story of Massai, the legendary Apache who escaped from Geronimo's prison train in 1886, and made his way back to the Apacheria, where for several years, before finally disappearing, he waged a ruthless single-handed war against Whites and Mexicans. Based on careful research, as are all of Wellman's books.

Jubal Troop
New York, Carrick and Evans [1939], 583 pp.
A full-blooded melodramatic novel which ranges the Texas-New Mexico-Chihuahua border country of bandits and cattle and ends up in oily Oklahoma.

116. HELEN C. WHITE (1896 - )
Dust on the King's Highway
New York, The Macmillan Co., 1947. 468 pp.
Francisco Garcés (1738-1781) is the protagonist of this best of all novels about the Spanish missionaries to the Southwest. His heroic series of entradas into the land of the Hopis and Havasupais and beyond to the San Joaquin Valley in California and his final martyrdom by the Yumas near the junction of the Gila and the Colorado, are told by the Catholic author with both fidelity and imagination.

117. STEWART EDWARD WHITE (1873 - 1946)
Arizona Nights
illustrations by N. C. Wyeth
New York, The McClure Co., 1907. 351 pp.
Good yarns of cattlemen, greenhorns and Indians in southern Arizona. The landscape from Mt. Graham to Yuma is evoked in simple, vivid language. A novelette called The Rawhide anticipates Richter's The Sea of Grass, and has been named by White as the most coherent of all his stories and novels.

118. OWEN WISTER (1860 - 1938)
Red Men and White
illustrated by Frederic Remington
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1896. 280 pp.
Contains such memorable southern Arizona stories as "Specimen Jones," "La Tinaja Bonita," and "A Pilgrim on the Gila," all of which owe much to Bret Harte. A decade later in the Wyoming novel called The Virginian, Wister fixed the cowboy-hero mould which has been turning out westerns ever since.

119. HAROLD BELL WRIGHT (1872 - 1944)
The Mine with the Iron Door, A Romance
New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1923. [339 pp.]
Few American authors have exceeded Wright in sales. Zane Grey ran third to him and Gene Stratton Porter. No American authors have exceeded Wright in sentimentality. I have included this one, laid in the Santa Catalinas near Tucson, to show Wright's saccharine consistency in sentimentalizing traditional Southwest props: prospectors, badmen, Indians, womanhood, wildlife, and the desert itself, in a way that makes Zane Grey seem cold and hard.

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